The Cardio-Vascular (CV) System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Cardio-Vascular (CV) System Deck (37)
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1

CV system Functions

Transport: essential food, oxygen, water, enzymes, hormones to cells of the body.
Remove: waste products to excretory organs

2

Components of CV system

1. Heart
2. Blood Vessels
3. Blood

3

Location of the Heart

Situated in the thoracic cavity.

it lies behind the STERNUM in front of the SPINE, between the LUNGS & above the DIAPHRAGM

4

Structure of the Heart

Hollow
Cone Shaped
Muscular Organ

5

Walls of the Heart

3 main layers:
1. pericardium (outer layer)
2. Myocardium (middle layer)
3. Endocardium (inner layer)

6

Name the Four Chambers of the heart

Left and right Atria.
Left and right ventricles

7

Describe the Atria

Two thinner walled upper chambers of the heart

Separated by the inter-atrial septum in an adult of normal health

8

Describe the Ventricles

Two thicker walled muscular lower chambers that receive blood form their respective atria.

They pump the blood either around the body (left) or through the lungs (right)

9

describe the Inter-ventricular Septum

A dividing wall of tissue which partitions the heart into left and right sides

10

describe the Atrio-ventricular septum

separates the atria from the ventricles

11

name the valves of the heart

Tricuspid valve
Pulmonary Semi-lunar valve
Bicuspid valve
Aortic Semi-lunar valve

12

Electrical Conduction System - name the components

specialised cardiac cells that produce electrical impulses to cause the heart to contract
-sino-atrial node
-atrio-ventricular node
-left & right bundle branches
-Conduction pathways (Purkinje fibres)

13

What Is the Cardiac Cycle

0.1 sec - Atrial Systole - contraction of atria
0.3 sec - Ventricular Systole - contraction of ventricles
0.4 sec - Cardiac Diastole - Relaxation phase

14

What is Cardiac Output (CO) and how is it calculated?

the amount of blood expelled form the ventricles in 1 minute.
SV x HR = CO

15

What is Stroke Volume (SV)

the amount of blood expelled from the ventricles in each contraction.

16

Nervous control

The heart is controlled primarily by the rate of self-excitation of its own tissue. HOWEVER, the Autonomic Nervous System does play a role.

17

Cardiovascular Centre

Located in the Medulla Oblongata. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic control regulates heart rate.

18

five types of Blood Vessels

Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins

19

Blood Vessel composition

An outer fibrous sheath
A middle layer of muscle and elastic fibre
A smooth inner lining of Endothelium

20

Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart
Have a thick outer coat
Have a thick muscle layer

21

Arterioles

Smaller then arteries
Arterioles (and Venules) dilate or contact to control blood flow into and out of the capillary bed.

22

Capillaries

Have one cell thick walls
Allow the interchange of gasses
Transfer nutrients and waste products

23

Venules

Smaller then Veins.
Can dilate or contract to control blood flow into and out of the capillary bed.

24

Veins

Return blood to the heart
Have thinner walls then arteries
Some veins have valves to prevent the back flow of blood.

25

Blood

Carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
Carries nutrients and water
Carry waste products
Protect the body from infection
Sealing of wounds
Distributes secretions from glands
Distributes heat

26

Blood composition

Plasma 55%
Erythrocytes - red cells
leucocytes - white cells
Thrombocytes - platelets

27

Circulatory Systems four sub-systems

Systemic
Coronary
Pulmonary
Hepatic Portal

plus an additional network call the Lymphatic system

28

Systemic circulation

deals with the passage of blood around the body

29

Coronary circulation

deals with the supply of blood to the heart muscle itself

30

Pulmonary circulation

deals with the passage of blood through the lungs

31

Hepatic Portal circulation

deals with the supply of blood to and from the Liver.
It is a branch of the Systemic circulation

32

Lymphatic system

is a system of vessels similar to capillaries and works in conjunction with the main circulatory system.

33

Lymphatic system assists in:

the removal of waste from body tissues
the transportation of nutrients
fighting infection

34

The pulse is:

the rhythmic pulsation of an artery

35

The pulse can be felt at:

Radial Pulse - in the wrist
Brachial Pulse - above the elbow
Femoral Pulse - in the groin
Carotid Pulse - felt in the neck

36

Blood pressure is:

the pressure exerted by the blood on arterial walls. expressed in mmhg (millimetres of mercury).

37

Systolic Pressure

The force at which the left ventricle pumps the blood into the Aorta.
This force dissipates by the time the blood reaches the capillaries.
Normal adult systolic pressure is 120mmhg but can vary.