Basic Life Support Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Life Support Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation Deck (21)
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Signs of Cardiac/Respiratory Arrest

Lack of pulse
Lack of respiratory effort


Those most at risk of Cardiac/Respiratory Arrest

Known cardiac patients
Previous cardiac arrest
Previous heart attack
Previous stroke


Requesting Assistance

When encountering a patient who is in or who you believe is about to go into cardiac or respiratory arrest request assistance as early as possible.

The management of these conditions requires specialist skills and equipment and the earlier these are requested the earlier they will arrive.


Primary Survey - steps


NO RESPONSE = request assistance
Start CPR



CPR - chest compression to inflation rate

Chest compressions X 30
Inflations X 2
(then repeat)


Chest Compressions - How to do them properly

These are the most important part of basic and advanced life support.

Two hands should be placed on the centre of the chest and the chest should be compressed by a depth of 5-6cm.

Chest compressions should be delivered at a rate of 100-120 per minute.

Chest compressions should not be interrupted except for the short pauses necessary to allow for ventilation and defibrillation only.


Steps to take if off duty/for general public

Check for danger
Shout for help
Open airway
Not breathing normally?
Call 999

30 chest compressions
2 rescue breaths
(repeat until help arrives and someone takes over)


Pocket mask contents:

Pocket Mask (folded)
One Way Valve (disposable)
Head strap


The Pocket Mask has...

A pre-inflated air filled cuff
A foldable semi-soft mask dome
A tubular connection port


Pocket Mask - advantages of use

Provides a physical barrier between the rescuer and the patient and reduces the risk of infection.

Allows ventilation through mouth and nose at the same time.

Can be utilised with oxygen.

Helps to provide an open airway with only a moderate amount of backward head tilt.

Can be carried at all times.


Pocket Mask - how to use it

Push out the dome and attach the valve to the mask port with the exhalation port directed away form yourself.

Apply the rim of the mask between the patients lower lip and chin, thus retracting the lower lip to keep the mouth open under the mask.

Clamp to the patients face with both thumbs on the sides of the mask.

Using your index finger, middle and ring fingers grasp the lower jaw just in front of the earlobes and above the angles of the jaw then pull the jaw upwards.

Tilt the head moderately backwards to open the airway and maintain it in this position.

Blow into mask until you can see an adequate chest rise.

Remove your mouth and allow patient to exhale maintaining ventilations as required.

Alternately the 'C-Grip' can be used to secure the mask to the patients face.


Pocket Mask - one way valve info

The mask is re-useable after cleaning BUT the valve is not.

It should be discarded as clinical waste and a replacement obtained from station stock.


Laryngectomy patients

Full neck breather.
Has a stoma for air passage instead of route through mouth/nose.


Tracheostomy patients

Partial neck breather.
Has a stoma as well as an open air passage through mouth/nose.


CPR for Tracheostomy patients

Check the Neck.
Clear the airway.
Check for breathing.

If the chest fails to rise after step 4 place two fingers each side of the nose and your thumb under the chin.

Close your fingers to prevent and escape of air from the mouth/nose.

Repeat step 4.

Release your fingers between each blow.


CPR in late stages of pregnancy

In the late stages of pregnancy the weight of the unborn child can cause pressure on the major blood vessels when the patient is supine.

This can effect the return of blood during CPR.

Therefore the patient should be inclined to the left by placing a folder blanket under their right buttock.


CPR for infants & children

The principles of BLS remain the same.

Infant; up to 1st birthday.
<60BPM = inadequate circulation and is treated as cardiac arrest

Child; up to puberty.
Consideration should be given to the size of the patient.


CPR for infants & children - steps of action

Level of consciousness
= no response =
Request assistance
Open airway
Check Breathing
Five rescue breaths
Assess for signs of circulation
Compress chest X 15
Ratio of 15:2 (Lone rescuer can use 30:2)


CPR method - infant <1yr

Two fingers or two thumbs with hands encircling chest.

Lower half of sternum.

1/3 depression of chest.

100-120 per minute.


CPR method - Child >1yr - puberty

Heel of one hand or two depending on size.

Lower half of sternum.

1/3 depression of chest.

100-120 per minute.


CPR method - Adult

Two hands.

Centre of chest.


100-120 per minute.