Angina Pectoris and Heart Failure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Angina Pectoris and Heart Failure Deck (8)
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1

Angina Pectoris definition

Ischemic (decrease in blood supply) chest pain due to a reduction of the blood supply to the Myocardium.

2

Angina Pectoris cause

caused by narrowing of the cardiac arteries

3

Angina Pectoris signs and symptoms

Tends to occur on exertion or during emotional distress.
Pain behind the sternum running the length of the bone and spreading across the chest.
Pain sometimes radiating to the jaw, throat, teeth, axilla (armpit) & arms.
Short, sharp breathing.
Variable pulse.
Pallor/nausea.
Pain subsides with rest.

4

Heart Failure

Failure of the heart to pump adequately. Can be Left or Right Ventricular failure. Or Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF) which LVF & RVF combined.

5

Left Ventricular Failure (LVF) signs and symptoms

severe Dyspnoea (SOB) and Tachypnoea (rapid breathing)
Tachycardia (elevated HR).
Elevated blood pressure.
Rales (crackles/clicking) and wheezes.
Frothy pink sputum.
Restlessness, agitation, confusion.
Sudden onset.
Paroxysmal (sudden outbursts) nocturnal Dyspnoea.
Pulmonary (Lungs) oedema (build up of fluid).

6

Right Ventricular Failure (RVF) signs and symptoms

Laboured breathing.
Peripheral (wrists/ankles/fingers etc) oedema.
Cyanosis (blue/purple discolouration to to low O2).
Congested neck veins.
Onset over period of time.
Usually secondary to LVF.

7

Management of Cardiac Conditions

Primary survey.
Administer O2/Entonox as appropriate.
Place unconscious patients in stable side position.
Be prepared to assist ventilations and/or CPR.
ECG monitor/Defibrillation.
Do not allow patient to walk or make unnecessary effort.

8

Management of Cardiac Conditions

Reassurance for patient/relatives.
Loosen tight clothing but maintain patients modesty.
Position concious patient in semi-recumbent position with legs raised.
LVF/RVF patients may be more comfortable upright with legs dependant)
Keep yourself calm and reassuring.
Never leave the patient alone or unattended.