Microbial Toxins and Antimicrobial Resistance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbial Toxins and Antimicrobial Resistance Deck (57)
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1

_____ activates membrane-associated guanylate cyclase activity

Heat-stable enterotoxin (E coli)

2

_____ are hybrid molecules that have a toxin fragment and an altered receptor-binding domain that is used to target a specific population of cells (Ex. tumor cells)

Immunotoxin

3

_____ increase intracellular cAMP and ____ increase intracellular cGMP

Heat-labile enterotoxin (Vibrio cholerae and E coli), pertussis toxin, Anthrax edema factor, and adenylate cyclase toxin; Heat-Stable enterotoxin (E coli)

4

_____ is an endopeptidase that cleaves several MAP kinase kinases and inactivates their function in signal transduction

Anthrax Lethal factor

5

______ alter actin cytoskeleton by transferring glucose to Rho GTPases (inactivating them)

Clostridium Difficile Toxins A and B

6

______ can inactivate specific SNARE proteins required for neuroexocytosis

Zinc-dependent endopeptidase

7

______ causes flaccid paralysis of skeletal muscles by inhibiting acetylcholine release

Botulinum toxin

8

______ inhibit Gi and increase membrane-associated adenylate cyclase activity

Pertussis

9

______ remove an adenine residue from 28S rRNA, which inhibits the ribosome and protein synthesis

Shiga toxin, ricin

10

_______ activate Gs and increase membrane-associated adenylate cyclase activity

Heat labile-enterotoxin (Vibrio cholerae and E coli)

11

_______ are adenylate cyclases that enter cells and increase cAMP (require activation by calmodulin and calcium).

Anthrax edema factor and adenylate cyclase toxin

12

_______ causes sustained muscular contraction (spastic paralysis) of skeletal muscles by inhibiting release of neurotransmitters from inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord

Tetanus toxin

13

_______ inhibit EF-2 via ADP-ribosylation, which inhibits protein synthesis

Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A

14

Altered PBPs (2), organism, affected drug class

mecA (Staphylococci) and Mosaic PBPs (Strep pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae); Beta-lactams

15

AmpC Beta-lactamase differs from narrow and extended spectrum beta-lactamases in that it is ______. Found in _______.

Not affected by Beta-lactamase inhibitors; Enterobacter and Pseudomonas (c)

16

Antimicrobial resistance to _____ is intrinsic in anaerobic bacteria that do not have a necessary electrochemical gradient for drug molecules to enter

Aminoglycosides

17

Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs via dimethylation of 23S rRNA.

Macrolides

18

Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs via methylation of the 16S rRNA.

Aminoglycosides

19

Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs via mutations in the QRDR.

Quinolones

20

Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs with constitutive expression of erm; this drug does not induce erm

Clindamycin

21

Antimicrobial resistance to ______ occurs due to the ___ gene which expresses ______ ribosome methylase

Macrolides; erm; erythromycin

22

Antimicrobial resistance to ______ occurs via a change in the terminal five-member peptide in peptidoglycan (Organism: ______)

Vancomycin; enterococcus

23

Antimicrobial resistance to ______ occurs via N-acetylation, O-phosphorylation, or O-nucleotidylation of the drug

Aminoglycosides

24

Bla is a narrow spectrum beta-lactamase, most commonly found in _______.

Staphylococci

25

Carbapenemases: plasmid vs. chromosome, drug resistance, organism

plasmid; All beta-lactams and carbapenems; Klebsiella

26

Carbapenemases (2)

Klebsiella Pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) and New Delhi Metallobetalactamase-1 (NDM-1)

27

Common methods of resistance that decrease drug access to target (2)

Porins, efflux pumps

28

CTX-1 is a/an ______ spectrum beta-lactamase, mostly found in ______.

extended; E. coli

29

Extended spectrum Beta-lactamases (2), plasmid vs. chromosome, drug resistance

CTX-M (p) and SHV-type (p); PCNs, ampicillin, and Cephalosporins

30

Inducible genes conferring resistance

AmpC (PCNs, ampicillin, and cephalosporins) and erm (macrolides and clindamycin)