Flashcards in Microbial Toxins and Antimicrobial Resistance Deck (57)
_____ activates membrane-associated guanylate cyclase activity
Heat-stable enterotoxin (E coli)
_____ are hybrid molecules that have a toxin fragment and an altered receptor-binding domain that is used to target a specific population of cells (Ex. tumor cells)
_____ increase intracellular cAMP and ____ increase intracellular cGMP
Heat-labile enterotoxin (Vibrio cholerae and E coli), pertussis toxin, Anthrax edema factor, and adenylate cyclase toxin; Heat-Stable enterotoxin (E coli)
_____ is an endopeptidase that cleaves several MAP kinase kinases and inactivates their function in signal transduction
Anthrax Lethal factor
______ alter actin cytoskeleton by transferring glucose to Rho GTPases (inactivating them)
Clostridium Difficile Toxins A and B
______ can inactivate specific SNARE proteins required for neuroexocytosis
______ causes flaccid paralysis of skeletal muscles by inhibiting acetylcholine release
______ inhibit Gi and increase membrane-associated adenylate cyclase activity
______ remove an adenine residue from 28S rRNA, which inhibits the ribosome and protein synthesis
Shiga toxin, ricin
_______ activate Gs and increase membrane-associated adenylate cyclase activity
Heat labile-enterotoxin (Vibrio cholerae and E coli)
_______ are adenylate cyclases that enter cells and increase cAMP (require activation by calmodulin and calcium).
Anthrax edema factor and adenylate cyclase toxin
_______ causes sustained muscular contraction (spastic paralysis) of skeletal muscles by inhibiting release of neurotransmitters from inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord
_______ inhibit EF-2 via ADP-ribosylation, which inhibits protein synthesis
Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A
Altered PBPs (2), organism, affected drug class
mecA (Staphylococci) and Mosaic PBPs (Strep pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae); Beta-lactams
AmpC Beta-lactamase differs from narrow and extended spectrum beta-lactamases in that it is ______. Found in _______.
Not affected by Beta-lactamase inhibitors; Enterobacter and Pseudomonas (c)
Antimicrobial resistance to _____ is intrinsic in anaerobic bacteria that do not have a necessary electrochemical gradient for drug molecules to enter
Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs via dimethylation of 23S rRNA.
Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs via methylation of the 16S rRNA.
Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs via mutations in the QRDR.
Antimicrobial resistance to _____ occurs with constitutive expression of erm; this drug does not induce erm
Antimicrobial resistance to ______ occurs due to the ___ gene which expresses ______ ribosome methylase
Macrolides; erm; erythromycin
Antimicrobial resistance to ______ occurs via a change in the terminal five-member peptide in peptidoglycan (Organism: ______)
Antimicrobial resistance to ______ occurs via N-acetylation, O-phosphorylation, or O-nucleotidylation of the drug
Bla is a narrow spectrum beta-lactamase, most commonly found in _______.
Carbapenemases: plasmid vs. chromosome, drug resistance, organism
plasmid; All beta-lactams and carbapenems; Klebsiella
Klebsiella Pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) and New Delhi Metallobetalactamase-1 (NDM-1)
Common methods of resistance that decrease drug access to target (2)
Porins, efflux pumps
CTX-1 is a/an ______ spectrum beta-lactamase, mostly found in ______.
extended; E. coli
Extended spectrum Beta-lactamases (2), plasmid vs. chromosome, drug resistance
CTX-M (p) and SHV-type (p); PCNs, ampicillin, and Cephalosporins