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Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (111):
1

______ are generated by intrinsic oxidases in ER of cells and in PMNs, also by radiation

Free radicals

2

______ chemically damage proteins, DNA, RNA, and trigger lipid peroxidation in cell membranes

Free radicals

3

2O2- + 2H+ -> H2O2 + O2- (catalyzed by ______)

superoxide dismutase

4

2ŸOH + 2GSH -> 2H2O + GSSG (catalyzed by _______)

glutathione peroxidase

5

Acute or chronic inflammation? Dilation and increased flow, increased permeability resulting in transudate or exudate

Acute

6

Acute or chronic inflammation? Duration of days

Acute

7

Acute or chronic inflammation? Onset over the course of days

Chronic

8

Acute or chronic inflammation? Sentinel/local cells in the tissue

Chronic

9

Acute phase cell(s)

Neutrophils

10

Cell adaptation: decrease in size and functional capacity of the cell

atrophy

11

Cell adaptation: increase in number of cells in a tissue

hyperplasia

12

Cell adaptation: increase in size of cell to enable increase in cell function

hypertrophy

13

Cell adaptation: replacement of one type of tissue with another in response to injury

metaplasia

14

Cell death by _____ tends to affect scattered, individual cells

apoptosis

15

Chemical species with an unpaired electron

Free radicals

16

Chronic phase cell(s)

Macrophages, lymphocytes, (eosinophils)

17

Eicosanoids are ________(pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in ________

on demand;WBCs, platelets, and endothelial cells

18

eNOS are ________(pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in ________

on demand; endothelial cells

19

Fe2+ + H2O2 -> Fe3+ + ŸOH + OH-

Fenton Reaction

20

Five cardinal signs of injury

redness, swelling, pain, heat, loss of function

21

Fragmentation of nuclei is also known as ______.

karyorrhexis

22

H2O2 -> O2 + 2H2O (catalyzed by ______)

Catalase

23

H2O2 + O2- -> ŸOH + OH- + O2

Haber-Weiss Reaction

24

Hagemen Factor activates _____ (3)

Thrombin/Coagulation pathway, plasmin, and Kallikrein pathway

25

Histamine is _________ (pre-formed/synthesized on demand)

pre-formed

26

Histamine is found in ________.

Platelets, mast cells, basophils

27

In ______, chromosomal DNA reflects nonspecific degradative smear of DNA fragments

necrosis

28

In hypoxia, _________ is proteolytically converted to xanthine _______, which produces oxygen radicals

xanthine dehydrogenase; oxidase

29

Inflammatory reaction characterized by accumulation of modified macrophages (epithelioid cells), giant cells, lymphocytes, and occasional plasma cells

Granulomatous infection

30

iNOS are ________(pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in ________

on demand; endothelial cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle

31

nNOS are ________(pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in ________

on demand; neural parenchyma

32

Nucleus shrinks and chromatin becomes deeply basophilic and clumpy

pyknosis

33

Outcomes of Acute Inflammation

Complete resolution, scarring, abscess, progression to chronic inflammation

34

PAF is _________ (pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in _______.

on demand; platelets, neutrophils, basophils, macrophages, mast cells, and endothelial cells

35

Pyknotic clumps are broken down and disappear in the process of _____.

karyolysis

36

Reversible or irreversible? Activation of lysosomal enzymes

Irreversible

37

Reversible or irreversible? Decrease in ATP

Reversible

38

Reversible or irreversible? Decrease in Na pump activity

Reversible

39

Reversible or irreversible? Decrease in protein synthesis

Reversible

40

Reversible or irreversible? Decrease in tissue pH

Reversible

41

Reversible or irreversible? DNA and protein degradation

Irreversible

42

Reversible or irreversible? Increase in glycolysis

Reversible

43

Reversible or irreversible? Increase in intracellular calcium concentration

Irreversible

44

ROS are ________(pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in ________

on demand; leukocytes and macrophages

45

Serotonin is _________ (pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in _______.

pre-formed; platelets

46

TNF is ________(pre-formed/synthesized on demand) and found in ________

on demand; macrophages, lymphocytes, and mast cells

47

Transudate or Exudate? Caused by increase in hydrostatic pressure or reduction in oncotic pressure

Transudate

48

Transudate or Exudate? Caused by inflammation

Exudate

49

Transudate or Exudate? High Fluid/Serum glucose concentration

Exudate

50

Transudate or Exudate? High Fluid/Serum LDH concentration

Exudate

51

Transudate or Exudate? High specific gravity

Exudate

52

Transudate or Exudate? Low Fluid/Serum protein ratio

Transudate

53

Transudate or Exudate? Low protein concentration

Transudate

54

Transudate or Exudate? WBCs present

Exudate

55

Type of necrosis classically seen in adipose tissue typically following acute pancreatits or trauma

Fat necrosis

56

Type of necrosis classically seen in the heart following a myocardial infarction

coagulative

57

Type of necrosis seen only in tuberculosis, characterized by white, chalky lymph nodes

Caseous

58

Type of necrosis that is common in brain and spleen, and with acute infection

liquefactive

59

Type of necrosis: dead cell dissolves away as lysosomal hydrolases digest cellular components

Liquefactive

60

Type of necrosis: dead cell remains a ghost-like remnant of former self

coagulative

61

Type of necrosis: fats are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids which precipitate with calcium to produce chalky gray material

Fat necrosis

62

What appearance of inflammation? Dominated by neutrophils in an non-confined space

Fibrinopurulent Exudate

63

What appearance of inflammation? Epithelioid cells and giant cells usually within parenchyma

Granuloma

64

What appearance of inflammation? Newly formed cavity resulting from inflammatory cells within parenchyma/confined space

Abscess

65

What appearance of inflammation? Occurs in skin, characterized by neutrophils then mononuclear cells

Cellulitis

66

What appearance of inflammation? Occurs within an anatomical space or cavity; characterized by neutrophils predominating early followed by macrophages and lymphocytes

Empyema

67

What are the four classes of chemokines?

C-X-C; C-C; C; CX3C

68

What are the three types of cytokines?

interleukins, interferons, and chemokines

69

What condition is characterized by hot, dry skin with cessation of sweating (usuall), lactic acidosis leading to rhabdomyolysis, necrosis of renal tubules (ATN), widespread intravascular coagulation (DIC), and multi-organ failure?

Exertional Heat Stroke

70

What condition is characterized by the following actions: cytoplasm swells, mitochondria and ER dilate, and there is blebbing of the plasma membrane/loss of membrane integrity?

necrosis

71

What condition is characterized by the following descriptors: cytoplasm is shrunken, membrane blebbing, nuclear DNA appears compacted and dense?

apoptosis

72

What condition is characterized by young, elderly, obese in hot humid weather, hot dry sking with respiratory alkalosis, hypotension, and coma?

Classic Heat Stroke

73

Which chemical mediator is activated via the Kallikrein pathway?

Bradykinin

74

Which chemical mediator is associated with activation of inflammatory cells (macrophages, T cells), interference with viral replication, and tumor defense?

Interferons

75

Which chemical mediator is associated with attracting lymphocytes?

C Chemokines

76

Which chemical mediator is associated with attracting macrophages, basophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes?

C-C Chemokines

77

Which chemical mediator is associated with endothelial activation and fibroblast stimulation locally?

TNF

78

Which chemical mediator is associated with fever, anorexia, sleepiness, and liver effects systemically?

TNF

79

Which chemical mediator is associated with increasing vascular permeability and activating C3 to C3a?

Plasmin (Fibrinolytic system)

80

Which chemical mediator is associated with microbe damage, host tissue collateral damage, inactivation of antiproteases?

ROS

81

Which chemical mediator is associated with neurotransmitter release and blood flow regulation?

nNOS

82

Which chemical mediator is associated with neutrophil chemotaxis and activation?

C-X-C Chemokines

83

Which chemical mediator is associated with Pain signaling, vascular tone modulation, and vascular permeability modulation?

Substance P

84

Which chemical mediator is associated with smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, and mucous secretion followed by chemotaxis of WBCs?

Histamine/Serotonin

85

Which chemical mediator is associated with stopping bleeding vasoconstriction, chemotaxis/leukocyte activation, platelet acitvation, and bronchospasm?

PAF

86

Which chemical mediator is associated with vasodilation and reduced leukocyte/platelet adhesion?

eNOS

87

Which chemical mediator is associated with vasodilation, chemotaxis, and toxicity to microbes and neoplastic tissue?

iNOS

88

Which chemical mediator is associatied with vasodilation, increasing vascular permeability, bronchial contraction, and pain?

Bradykinin

89

Which chemical mediator is asssociated with attracting macrophages and T lymphocytes?

CX3C Chemokines

90

Which chemical mediator is derived from a membrane phospholipid modified by LPCAT?

Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)

91

Which chemical mediator is derived from arichidonic acid?

Eicosanoids

92

Which chemical mediator is inactivated by superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, cerluplasmin, and transferrin?

ROS

93

Which chemical mediator is preformed and associated with digestion of microbes/foreign material and chemotaxis?

Stored Mediator Content

94

Which chemical mediator is primarily synthesized on demand from macrophages and has similar function to TNF?

Interleukins

95

Which chemical mediator is released by nerve twigs

Substance P

96

Which chemical mediator is released in response to damage to endothelial cells and cytokines in response to tissue damage?

ROS

97

Which chemical mediator is released in response to in response to Antigen-IgE interaction, Tissue Injury, C5a-C3a interaction (anaphylatoxins), IL-1, IL-8?

Histamine

98

Which chemical mediator is released when there is platelet aggregation in response to collagen, thrombin, PAF, TXA2, etc.?

Serotonin

99

Which chemical mediator is secreted in response to bacterial endotoxin, immune complex, tissue injury, and other stimuli/mediators?

TNF

100

Which chemical mediator(s) is/are most responsible for systemic responses?

TNF and IL-1

101

Which eicosanoid chemical mediator is associated with increasing vascular permeability and chemotaxis?

Leukotrienes

102

Which eicosanoid chemical mediator is associated with vasoconstriction and promotion of platelet aggregation

Thromboxanes

103

Which eicosanoid chemical mediator is associated with vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and uterine contraction?

Prostaglandins

104

Which liver-derived chemical mediator promotes formation of prostaglandins, cytokines, platelet activating factor, and nitric oxide?

Thrombin (Coagulation system)

105

Which NOS chemical mediator(s) is/are synthesized constitutively?

nNOS, eNOS

106

Which NOS chemical mediator(s) is/are synthesized in response to IL-1, TNF, interferon, and bacterial endotoxin?

iNOS

107

Which type of inflammation is characterized by "pus"?

Fibrinopurulent

108

Which type of inflammation is characterized by the following histologic features: abundant eosinophils?

Eosinophilic

109

Which type of inflammation is characterized by the following histologic features: mixed chronic inflammatory cells, necrotic centrally, or a foreign body present?

Granulomatous

110

Which type of inflammation is characterized by the following histologic features: PMNs, fibrin/blood products, and hemorrhage?

Fibrinopurulent

111

Which type of inflammation is characterized by walling off material or attempted digestion of non-digestible material?

Granulomatous