Viral and Fungal Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Viral and Fungal Pharmacology Deck (57):
1

Anti-Fungal: ______ is similar to Amphotericin B but severe side effects limit its use to topical administration

Nystatin

2

Anti-Fungal: available IV

Amphotericin B, Echinocandins, Ketoconazole, Pentamidine

3

Anti-Fungal: Available IV/IM and via inhalation

Pentamidine

4

Anti-Fungal: Binds to ergosterol and opens pores in fungal cell membrane

Amphotericin B

5

Anti-Fungal: Binds to microtubules and inhibits fungal mitosis

Griseofulvin

6

Anti-Fungal: Converted to 5-fluorouracil by ________ and interferes with DNA synthesis.

Flucytosine; deaminase

7

Anti-Fungal: Echinocandins

Caspofungin, Anidulafungin, Micafungin

8

Anti-Fungal: Fungicidal Classes

Amphotericin, Echinocandins (some), Terbinafine

9

Anti-Fungal: Fungicidal drug with side effects of GI upset, rash, headache, taste disturbance, and CYP disturbance

Terbinafine

10

Anti-Fungal: given with amphotericin B for Cryptococcus, candidiasis, and chromoblastomycosis

Flucytosine

11

Anti-Fungal: Imidazole

Ketoconazole, Cotrimazole, Miconazole

12

Anti-Fungal: Imidazole that is available orally and IV

Ketoconazole

13

Anti-Fungal: Imidazole with hepatic metabolism and excretion in breast milk

Ketoconazole

14

Anti-Fungal: Inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, Treat protozoa

Pentamidine

15

Anti-Fungal: Inhibit synthesis of cell wall component glucan

Echinocandins

16

Anti-Fungal: Inhibition of viral CYP450 leading to decrease in _____ synthesis

Triazoles Imidazoles; sterol

17

Anti-Fungal: Poor oral absorption that is improved with administration of fatty acids

Griseofulvin

18

Anti-Fungal: severe adverse reactions including nephrotoxicity, infusion-related toxicities, and anemia

Amphotericin B

19

Anti-Fungal: Side effects of n/v, anorexia, pruritis, hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity, and drug interactions (strong inhibitor of CYP3A4)

Ketoconazole

20

Anti-Fungal: Terbinafine: interfere with _______ synthesis by inhibition of ________.

ergosterol; squalene oxidase

21

Anti-Fungal: Triazole that enters CSF well

Fluconazole

22

Anti-Fungal: Triazole with Hepatic metabolism

Itraconazole

23

Anti-Fungal: Triazole with topical use only

Terconazole

24

Anti-Fungal: Triazoles

Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Terconazole

25

Anti-Fungal: used for severe superficial dermatoytosis

Griseofulvin

26

Anti-Fungal: Used in life-threatening systemic fungal infections, especially in immunosuppressed patients

Amphotericin B

27

Anti-Fungal: used primarily for invasive aspergillosis

Caspofungin, Anidulafungin, Micafungin

28

Anti-Fungal: Which has greater selective toxicity? Imidazoles or Triazoles?

Triazoles

29

CMV Drugs: administered IV

Ganciclovir, Foscarnet

30

CMV Drugs: Compete with dGTP for viral polymerase

Ganciclovir, Valganciclovir

31

CMV Drugs: Does not require cellular activation

Foscarnet

32

CMV Drugs: Good oral bioavailability

Valganciclovir

33

CMV Drugs: Initial phosphorylation by ________; then phosphorylation by _______

viral UL97; cellular protein kinases

34

CMV Drugs: inorganic pyrophosphate analog

Foscarnet

35

CMV Drugs: less selective toxicity than acyclovir because host kinase can also perform first phosphorylation step

Ganciclovir, Valganciclovir

36

CMV Drugs: side effects of severe nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia, as well as CNS disturbances

Foscarnet

37

Herpes Drugs: Available IV

Acyclovir

38

Herpes Drugs: Available orally

Valacyclovir, Famciclovir

39

Herpes Drugs: Available topically only

Penciclovir, Vidarabine/Trifluridine, Docosanol

40

Herpes Drugs: Inhibit Viral Genome Replication

Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Penciclovir, Famciclovir, Vidarabine/Trifluridine

41

Herpes Drugs: Inhibitor of Viral Genome Replication are initially phosphorylated by ________, and then further phosphorylated by ________.

Viral thymidine kinase; cellular protein kinases

42

Herpes Drugs: Inhibitor of Viral Penetration

Docosanol

43

Herpes Drugs: Mechanisms of Action

Inhibit Viral genome replication, Inhibit Viral Penetration

44

Influenza Drugs: Cover Flu A and B

Oseltamavir, Zanamivir, Peramivir

45

Influenza Drugs: Hepatic Excretion

Rimantidine

46

Influenza Drugs: Inhalation

Zanamivir

47

Influenza Drugs: Inhibition of Neuraminidase (3)

Oseltamavir, Zanamivir, Peramivir

48

Influenza Drugs: Inhibition of Viral Uncoating (2)

Amantidine, Rimantidine

49

Influenza Drugs: IV

Peramivir

50

Influenza Drugs: Modes of Action (2)

Inhibit Neuraminidase, Inhibit Viral Uncoating

51

Influenza Drugs: Side effects of bronchospasm in patients with COPD or asthma

Zanamivir

52

Influenza Drugs: Sides effects of insomnia, concentration difficulty, lightheadedness/ dizziness

Amantidine

53

RSV Drugs: Inhibit Viral RNA expression

Ribavirin

54

RSV Drugs: Main side effects of Ribavirin (2)

Hemolytic Anemia; Highly teratogenic

55

RSV Drugs: Mechanisms of Action

Inhibit Viral RNA expression, Prophylaxis

56

RSV Drugs: Prophylactic, uhmanized monoclonal antibody to _______

Palavizumab; F glycoprotein

57

RSV Drugs: Ribavirin is phosphorylated by _______ and inhibits ______

cellular kinases; viral mRNA capping