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Flashcards in The Skin Deck (84):
1

_____ glands: axillary, pubic, and perianal regions; produce milky, viscid, carbohydrate-rich secretion; begin to function during puberty

Apocrine Sweat

2

_____ glands: hybrid sweat glands mainly in axilla

Apoeccrine

3

_____ glands: lubricate thick terminal hairs with oily secretion

Sebaceous

4

_____ glands: oil glands that secrete sebum (lipid mixture)

Sebaceous

5

_____ glands: produce more viscous sweat, become active after puberty, located in axillary and anogenital regions

Apocrine Glands

6

_____ glands: secrete odorless watery sweat, vital in thermoregulation

Eccrine

7

_____ glands: secretion of entire cell

Holocrine

8

_____ glands: traditional Sweat glands distributed over most of the body with water enzyme-rich secretions

Eccrine Sweat

9

______ layer of the dermis: dense connective tissue

Reticular

10

______ layer of the dermis: loose connective tissue immediately under the epidermis

Papillary

11

_________: apical portion of secretory cell cytoplasm pinches off and enters lumen

Decapitation secretion

12

______: attach keratinocytes to each other

Desmosomes

13

______: onion-like arrangement of nervous tissue, involved in vibration and pression, highest density of genitals

Pacinian Corpuscles

14

______: pine cone-like arrangement of nervous tissue, involved in fine touch, highest density on pulps of digits

Meissner's Corpuscles

15

_____: attach basal cells firmly to basal lamina of dermal-epidermal junction

Hemidesmosomes

16

____melanin: black-brown color

Eumelanin

17

____melanin: yellow to red-brown color

Pheomelanin

18

Adnexal Structures (5)

Apocrine Glands, Eccrine Glands, Sebaceous Glands, Hair, Nails

19

Cell type: form barrier layer, synthesize keratin, involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis

keratinocytes

20

Cell type: pigment producing cells (synthesize melanin and supplies it to about 30 nearby keratinocytes)

melanocytes

21

Cell type: Specialized dendritic cells derived from bone marrow stem cells present in the epidermis

Langerhans Cells

22

Collagen Type __: >85% weight of dermis, major component of bone (predominant type)

I

23

Collagen Type __: anchoring fibrils that attach epidermis to dermis

VII

24

Collagen Type __: found in basement membrane zone in dermoepidermal junction, more prominent around blood vessels

IV

25

Collagen Type __: large part of fetal dermis (less in adult), more resistant to scar formation

III

26

Description: circumscribed elevation containing pus, <1cm

pustule

27

Description: circumscribed loss of epidermis and upper dermis

ulcer

28

Description: deep crack or cleavage found in areas of thickened skin

fissure

29

Description: discrete, solid elevated mass; less than 1cm

papule

30

Description: dried blood, serum, or purulent exudate on skin surface; may be thick or thin

crust

31

Description: excess stratum corneum, appearing as white or gray flakes or plates

scale

32

Description: firm and well defined lesion, dermal or subcutaneous, more than 1cm

nodule

33

Description: flat discoloration of skin/mucous membrane, extravasation of blood, color transitions over time

Ecchymoses

34

Description: fluid filled cavity, within or just below epidermis, <1cm

vesicle

35

Description: fluid-filled blister, >1cm

bulla

36

Description: generalized blanchable redness caused by increased blood flow

erythroderma

37

Description: greater than 1cm, flat area of color change

patch

38

Description: less than 1cm, flat area of color change

macule

39

Description: localized loss of epidermal or mucosal epithelium

erosion

40

Description: Localized, blanchable redness, increased blood flow to area

erythema

41

Description: raised and palpable discoloration, due to vasculitis and extravasation of blood cells

Palpable purpura

42

Description: scab; adherent dry crust colored black

eschar

43

Description: solid, flat-topped elevated area of skin, greater than 1cm

plaque

44

Description: thinning of tissue

atrophy

45

Description: tiny 1-2mm pinpoint spots resulting from tiny hemorrhages

Petechiae

46

Description: visible persistent dilation of small subcutaneous blood vessels

telangiectasias

47

Eccrine glands are stimulated by _______ release

Acetylcholine

48

Epidermal _____ interdigitate with upward projections of dermal papillae

rete

49

Epidermis: type of epithelium

Stratified Squamous

50

Hair growth stage: _____: growing

anagen

51

Hair growth stage: _____: resting

telogen

52

Hair growth stage: _____: transitioning

catagen

53

Hair has a central _______ (soft keratin), _______ (hard keratin), and ______ (hard keratin)

medulla; cortex; cuticle

54

Hair type: ______: dark, course, thick

Terminal

55

Hair type: ______: fine, thin, apigmented

Vellus

56

Layer of Epidermis: consists of single layer of columnar or cuboidal keratinocytes

Stratum basalis

57

Layer of the Epidermis: contain different types of granules

Stratum granulosum

58

Layer of the Epidermis: keratinocytes have lost nuclei and organelles, cells are filled with keratin, outermost layer

Stratum corneum

59

Layer of the Epidermis: synthesis of involucrin and membrane coating granules begins in this layer, prickly/spiny appearance from desmosome attachments

Stratum spinosum

60

Layer of the Epidermis: thin, light staining band only in thick skin

Stratum lucidum

61

Melanosome Distribution: Distributed in clusters above the nucleus

Light Skin

62

Melanosome Distribution: Distributed individually throughout the cytoplasm

Dark Skin

63

Nerve type __ (______ myelinated, _____ conducting): proprioception, touch, muscle stretch receptors

A; heavily; fast

64

Nerve type ___ (___ myelinated, _____ conducting): sensation that is diffuse/non-localizing, temperature and itch sensations

C; not; slow

65

Procollagen is synthesized _______ and assebled _______.

intracellulary; extracellulary

66

Treatment for wrinkles

Pure Hyaluronic acid (Restylane)

67

Treatment of alopecia in men

Finasteride (Propecia)

68

Treatment of hyperhidrosis

Botulinum toxin injection

69

What pathology? Acquired disorder resulting from sun-damaged elastic fibers

Solar Elastosis

70

What pathology? blocked sweat ducts, resulting in manifestations dependent on site of blockage (acquired disorder)

Milaria

71

What pathology? Congenital disorder with mutations at various stages of collagen synthesis

Ehlers-Danlos

72

What pathology? Congenital disorder with poor temperature regulation and other ectodermal manifestations

Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

73

What pathology? deficiency of Vitamin C cofactor leading to collagen deficiency

Scurvy

74

What pathology? disease of philosebaceous unit with plugged follicular environment, abnormal follicular formation

acne

75

What pathology? EDA mutation resulting in severely decreased sweating

Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

76

What pathology? excessive sweating due to excessive ACh release

Hyperhidrosis

77

What pathology? Hyperextensible joints, fragile blood vessels, poor wound healing

Ehlers-Danlos

78

What pathology? keratotic plugging of hairs, perifollicular hemorrhage, corkscrew hairs, hemorrhagic gingivitis

Scurvy

79

What pathology? lipofuscin pigment, resulting in colored sweat secretions (yellow, green, blue, or black)

Chromohydrosis

80

What pathology? Mutation in MDR gene leading to brittle calcified elastic fibers

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

81

What pathology? Plucked chicken skin, systemic hypertension, angioid streaks in the retina

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

82

Which pathology? Defective skin barrier function due to loss of function filaggrin mutations

Icthyosis Vulgaris and Atopic Dermatitis

83

Which pathology? Flaccid bulla caused by antibodies to ______, which result in ______ blisters.

Pemphigous Vulgaris; Desmoglein 1 and 3; intraepidermal

84

Which pathology? Tense bulla caused by antibodies to ______, which result in _______ blisters.

Bullous pemphigoid; collagen; subepidermal