Microbiology Flashcards Preview

Disease and Defense > Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (65):
1

_______ is a localized infection resulting in systemic manifestations (high fever, low BP, malaise, confusion progressing to stupor, coma, organ failure), rash resembling a sunburn

Toxic Shock Syndrome

2

Actin homolog in bacteria

MreB and ParM

3

Aerobic(-), Anaerobic(+), killed by oxygen, use fermentive metabolism

Strict Anaerobe

4

Aerobic(+), Anaerobic(-), require oxygen, cannot ferment

Strict Aerobe

5

Aerobic(+), Anaerobic(+), ferments in presence or absence of oxygen

Indifferent (Aerotolerant)

6

Aerobic(+), Anaerobic(+), respires in presence of oxygen and ferments in absence of oxygen

Facultative Anaerobe

7

Aerobic(+*), Anaerobic(+), grows best at low concentration of oxygen and can grow without oxygen

Microaerophilic

8

Bacterial plasmids (usually) transfer DNA via physical contact between the donor and recipient cells in the process of _______

Conjugation

9

Bacteriophages transfer segments of DNA from one cell to another in the process of ______

Transduction

10

Clockwise movement of a flagellum give this movement: ______

Tumbling

11

Counterclockwise movement of a flaggelum gives this movement: ______

Swimming

12

degree of pathogenicity, number of microbes required to be introduced into a host for disease to result

Virulence

13

disease caused by an infection with a microbe

Infectious disease

14

Flagella distribution pattern with flagella all over the cell

Peritrichous

15

Flagella distribution pattern with flagella concentrated at one end of the cell

Polar

16

Four Phases of Bacterial Growth

Lag; Exponential; Stationary, Death

17

Gram (-) rods include: ______

E. coli and Pseudomonas

18

Gram + cocci include: _______

Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus

19

Gram + rods include: ______

Clostridium

20

Gram-______ bacteria have a thin, sparsely cross-linked peptidoglycan layer and other components located exterior to the peptidoglycan

Negative

21

Gram-_______ bacteria have a thick, extensively cross-linked peptidoglycan wall that also contains teichoic acids

Positive

22

Gram-Negative bacteria crosslink peptidoglycans from ____ to _____

DAP; D-Ala

23

Gram-Positive bacteria crosslink peptidoglycans from ____ to _____

L-Lys; D-Ala

24

Gram(-) (diplo)cocci include: _____

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

25

In gram positive cocci, _______ is typical in walled off infections, while ______ is typical in spreading infections

Staphylococcus; Streptococcus

26

inhibition of microbial growth at drug concentrations tolerated by the host

Selective toxicity

27

Intermediate filament homolog in bacteria

crescentin (CreS)

28

Mobile element that can mediate conjugation between cells, in which it is the DNA that is transferred

Conjugative Transposon

29

Naked DNA is taken up by competent cells in the process of _______.

Transformation

30

Name the two peptidoglycan hexose sugars

N-acetylglucuronic acid (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)

31

Pilus adheres and interferes with neutrophil action, different strains may have antigenically different pili and may even switch antigenic types

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

32

process whereby a microbe enters into a relationship with the host

Infection

33

Staph aureus is coagulase-____ while staph epidermis (SSNA) is coagulase-____

positive; negative

34

Staph epidermis is also known as _____

Staphylococcus Species Not Aureus (SSNA)

35

Staphylococci are catalase-___ and streptococci are catalase-_____

positive; negative

36

the ability to cause disease

Pathogenicity

37

There is more crosslinking in gram-___ bacteria

positive

38

Tubulin homolog in bacteria

FtsZ

39

Which bacteria? Most common causes of bacterial endocarditis

Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus viridans, and staphylococcus epidermidis

40

Which bacterium genus? Endospore formers that are strict anaerobes and gram+ rods

Clostridium

41

Which bacterium? Gain access to bloodstream following dental extractions or manipulations

Streptococcus viridans

42

Which bacterium? Can cause HAP and VAP

Staphylococcus aureus

43

Which bacterium? Cause of traveler's diarrhea (ETEC), UTIs, and abdominal infections

Escherichia coli

44

Which bacterium? Caused by injuries and others that lead to compromised blood flow, involves production of alpha toxin that kills phagocytic cells and muscle tissue

Clostridium Perfringens

45

Which bacterium? Causes conjunctivitis (that progresses to blindness) in infants born to infected mothers?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis

46

Which bacterium? Causes strep throat

Streptococcus pyogenes

47

Which bacterium? Food poisoning resulting from enterotoxin that interrupts tight junctions between epithelial cells of the ileum

Clostridium Perfringens

48

Which bacterium? Gram negative rods with high intrinsic antibiotic resistance and common cause of nosocomial UTIs and pneumonia

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

49

Which bacterium? Gram+ cocci frequently seen in nosocomial infections, often seen as a mixed infection.

Enterococcus faecalis and faecium

50

Which bacterium? Gram+ rods associated with diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis

Clostridium difficile

51

Which bacterium? Methicillin resistance is a significant issue

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

52

Which bacterium? Most common cause of pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae

53

Which bacterium? Most frequent cause of endogenous anaerobic abscess, responsible for more than 80% of abdominal infections

Bacteroides fragilis

54

Which bacterium? Obligate intracellular bacterium

Chlamydia trachomatis

55

Which bacterium? Post-infection can lead to Rheumatic fever

Streptococcus pyogenes

56

Which bacterium? Post-infection complication of glomerulonephritis resulting from Ag-Ab complexes deposited in the kidney that accumulate at the basement membrane, complement-mediated damage to the kidney

Streptococcus pyogenes

57

Which bacterium? Produce dextrans that adhere well to teeth and other oral tissues

Streptococcus viridans

58

Which bacterium? Produce hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals, have no cell walls and do not stain with gram stain

Mycoplasma pneumonia

59

Which bacterium? Produces “slime” that enables adherence to implanted devices and growth within a biofilm; important in bacterial endocarditis

Staph epidermis

60

Which bacterium? Produces M protein that has over 70 serotypes

Streptococcus pyogenes

61

Which bacterium? Produces spores that cannot be destroyed by alcohol-based hand sanitizer

Clostridium difficile

62

Which bacterium? Toxin blocks inhibitory interneurons and result in spastic paralysis

Clostridium Tetani

63

Which bacterium? Typically involved in mixed infection, cannot be cultured via traditional swabs

Anaerobic bacteria

64

Which bacterium? Which gram positive forms clusters of cocci?

Staphylococcus aureus

65

Which bacterium? Which toxin that blocks acetylcholine transmission at neuromuscular junctions, resulting in flaccid paralysis

Clostridium botulinum