Mitosis and Meiosis Lab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mitosis and Meiosis Lab Deck (33)
1

Why is the reproductive strategy of producing offsprings same as the parent

To ensure the survival of the species

2

Why is the reproductive strategy of producing offsprings that were different from the parent

To allow for adaptation and ensure survival of the species

3

A Sexual Reproduction

The strategy of producing offsprings that are genetically the same as the parents (clones)

4

How do a sexual organisms reproduce

Mitosis ( Binary Fission)

5

The oldest form and the simplest form of reproduction

Asexual reproduction ( relies on a single parent)

6

Sexual Reproduction

The stately of producing offsprings that are genetically diverse.
it is a more complex process and relies on two parents

7

Genetic variation is generated through two processes

1. Meiosis ( a form of cell division)
2. Fertilization ( the fusion of gametes)

8

Modern biologist view of reproduction

That organisms exist to serve and reproduce the genome: it is the reproduction of the the genes not the individual.

9

GENOME

Is one complete set of instructions for specifying an individual of a species.
1 genome = 1 set of chromosomes= 23 chromosomes in a cell.

10

How are genetic instructions written

They written in the language of nucleotide in the DNA of the cell

11

CHROMATIN

Describes DNA as loose strands in the nucleus

12

When stretched out how long is one DNA molecule from a human cell

4 cm

13

CHROMOSOME

a single molecule of DNA when it is condensed
Each chromosome carries a piece of the total genome
Every chromosome is different

14

1 set of chromosomes (n) =

1 genome (N) = 23 chromosomes= 1 set

15

The number of chromosomes in a set depends on what

it depend on the particular species.

16

The greek for set

"ploidy"

17

HAPLOID CELLS

a cell with a single set of chromosomes ( 23)
.Contain 1 genome

They have a chromosome number of n
They have one genome for that species ( 1 set of chromosomes= 23 chromosomes)

18

examples of organisms whose somatic cells are haploid

simple organisms ( like prokaryotic)

19

haploid cells examples

1. prokaryotic organisms
2. gametes

20

Complex organisms that reproduce sexually require

2 sets of chromosomes per cell: 2 genomes: 2n : 2 sets of 23 pairs of chromosomes

21

How is a haploid cell represented

n=1 set of chromosomes=1genome= 23 chromosomes

22

How is a diploid cell represented

2n= 2 ( set of chromosomes)= 2 genomes = 2 sets of 23 chromosomes =46 chromosomes.

23

DIPLOID

2 sets of chromosomes in each cell

24

2 reasons a cell divides

1. cellular ( growth, healing, replace) Mitosis
2. sexual ( to produce a sex cell) Meiosis)

25

Before a cell can divide for any reason a eukaryotic cell must

go through one round of cell cycle

26

The cell cycle

1. Interphase ( G1, S, G2): all essential cellular molecules and organelles are duplicated in preparation for cell division.

Once everything is duplicated, each round of cell cycle then ends of some form of nuclear division, followed by cell division( cytokinesis)

27

what happens at the end of a cell cycle

some form of nuclear division ( Mitosis or Meiosis

Interphase( cell cycle)--Mitosis/ meiosis ( nuclear division)-----Cytokinesis ( cellular division)

28

2 types of cells of cells as it relates to

1. Somatic Cells ( body cells ) undergo Mitosis ( Diploid Cells)
2. Germ Cells ( gametes) undergo Meiosis (Haploid cells)

29

purpose of mitosis

To sort out the chromosomes that were replicated ( duplicated) during S phase, package them and ensure that each daughter cell will get both versions

30

What happens to germ cells after going through many rounds of cell cycle

It goes through mitosis. This is how more germ cell gets made. Then finally go through meiosis instead

31

The purpose of meiosis

To sort out the chromosomes of germ cells prior to cell division

32

End result of cell division after meiosis is

4 daughter cells

33

Representation of meiosis summary

A diploid nucleus gives rise to 4 haploid nuclei
2n --//meiosis --- n + n( haploid)---- meiosis ---1/2 n + 1/2 n( haploid)