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1

Photosynthesis

Converts kinetic energy in light to potential energy in the covalent bonds of glucose

2

Photosynthetic organisms

1.Plants
2. Algae
3. Some microorganisms

3

Photosynthesis builds what from what

Builds carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water

4

What type of reaction is P/S

Redox

5

REdox reaction of P/S

Water = oxidized ( looses an electron when split by chlorophyll to replace its own lost electron)
Carbon dioxide = reduced ( gains electron from Nadph)

6

Why do plants need glucose

1. To generate ATP
2. nourish non-photosynthetic parts of the plant.
3. Produce cellulose
4. other biochemicals

7

Most plants store Excess glucose as

1. Starch
2. Sucrose

8

Explain the evolution of Photosynthesis

Before photosynthesis evolved, organisms were heterotrophs that relied on organic molecules as a carbon source.

The first autotrophs developed the ability to produce their own organic molecules from atmospheric Co2.

Oxygen produced by these organism changed the Earth's climate

9

Visible Light

A small part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

10

Photons

Packets of energy that move in waves.

11

Effect of wave length and kinetic energy

The longer the wavelength the less kinetic energy per photon

12

Photosynthetic pigments do what

Capture Light Energy

13

2 types of pigments found in chloroplasts

1. Chlorophyll a
2. accessory Pigments

14

Chlorophyl a

The primary photosynthetic pigment-- Reaction Center ( along with proteins)

15

Accessory pigment

absorb wavelengths of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb, extending the range of wavelengths useful for P/S

16

Chloroplasts are

The sites of P/S

17

Stomata

Pores where plant exchange gases with the environment through ( take in co2 and release O2)

18

Mesophyll

collective term for the internal cells of the plant.

19

Stroma

gelatinous matrix in the chloroplast ( outside the thylakoid membrane.

20

Thylakoid membrane

Site of light reaction. assembled in stacks in the the stroma.

21

Grana ( granum singl. )

Stacks of thylakoid membrane

22

Where are the pigments embedded

In the Thylakoid membrane

23

Photosystem

Consists of:
1. Antenna Pigments
2. Reaction Center ( chlorophyll a)

24

2 stages of P/S

1st. Light Reaction ( light dependent)
2nd. Carbon Reaction ( Light independent)

25

The 2 main products of Light Reaction needed by the 2nd stage

1. ATP
2. NADPH

26

The use of ATP and NADPH for Carbon Reaction

They provide energy and electrons for the glucose producing carbon reaction

27

Photosystem II produces

ATP

28

Photosystem ! Produces

NADPH

29

THE 2 STAGES OF LIght Reaction

Photosystem I
Photosystem II

30

Steps of Photosystem I

1. Antenna pigments capture photons from light energy.
2. Sends it to the Reaction center ( chlorophyll a)

2. chlorophyll a releases an electron into an Electron Transport Chain that joins Photosystem I with Photosystem II

3.Electrons from chlorophyll a are replaced by splitting water. O2 is a waste product.

4. Energy released in the ETC drives the active transport of protons ( through a proton pump) from the stroma into the thylakoid space.

5. Accumulation of protons from water splitting and active transport creates a transport gradient.

6.The protons diffuse in ATP Synthase

7. Th movement powers the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP