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Flashcards in mod 23 Deck (52)
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why do we need to have memory?
to retain useful …, …, and …
to recognize familiar … and …
to build our capacity to use …
to enjoy, share, and sustain …

skills; knowledge; expertise; people; places; language; culture;


why do we need to have memory cont.?
to build a sense of … that endures: what do I believe, value, remember, and understand?
to go beyond … in learning from experience, including lessons from one's past and from the experiences of others

self; conditioning


memory: the persistence of … over time, through the … and … of information and skills

learning; storage; retrieval


three behaviors show that memory is functioning: …, … and ...

recall; recognition; relearning


recall is analogous to … you retrieve information … and ….

"fill-in-the-blanks" previously learned; unconsciously stored


recognition is a form of "..." you identify which stimuli match your …

multiple choice; stored info


relearning is a measure of how much .. it takes you to learn information you had studied before, even if you don't recall having seen the information before

less work


schematic by which memory works: … --> … --> …

encoding; storage; retrieval


encoding: the information gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be



storage: the information is held in a way that allows it to later be



retrieval: … and … the information, producing it in a form similar to what was …

reactivating; recalling; encoded


(models of memory formation)
Atkinson-Shiffrin model:
1. stimuli are recorded by our … and held briefly in …
2. some of this information is processed into … and encoded through …
3. information then moves into … where it can be retrieved later

senses; sensory memory; short-term memory; rehearsal; long-term memory


(models of memory formation) modifying the Atkinson-Shiffrin model:
more goes on in short-term memory besides rehearsal; this is now called …
some information seems to go straight from sensory experience into …; this is called ...

working memory; long-term memory; automatic processing


some of the stimuli we encounter are picked up by our senses and processed by the sensory organs. this generates information which enters …
before this information vanishes from sensory memory, we select details to pay attention to, and send this information into … for … and other processing

sensory memory; working memory; rehearsal


short term memory holds information not just to rehearse it, but to … it
short-term memory integrates information from … with new information coming in from ..

process; long-term memory; sensory memory


explicit/declarative memories: facts an experiences that we can consciously … and …

know; recall


our minds aquire explicit memories through …: studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing, and then storing info in long-term memory

effortful processing


some memories are formed without going through all the Atkinson-Shiffrin stages. these are … memories, the ones we are not fully aware of and thus don't "declare"/talk about

implicit/procedural memories


procedural/implicit memories are typically formed through … implicit memories are formed without our … that we are building a memory, and without … or other processing in working memory (such as knowing how to walk/balance)

automatic processing; awareness; rehearsal


automatic processing: some experiences go directly to

long-term implicit memory


some experiences are processed automatically into implicit memory, without any effortful/working memory processing:
… memory, such as knowing how to ride a bike, and well-practiced knowledge such as word meanings
…, such as a smell that triggers throughs of a fav place
info about …, such as being able to picture where things are after walking through a room
info about .., such as retracing a sequence of events if you lost something
info about .., such as thinking "I just noticed that this is the third texting driver I've passed today"

procedural; conditioned associations; space; time; frequency


first phase of encoding and processing: …- the immediate, very brief recording of … before it is processed into … or .. memory

sensory memory; sensory information; short-term; long-term


we very briefly capture a …, analogous to an echo or an image, of all the sensations we take in

sensory memory


sensory memory consists of about a … to … second echo, or a 1/20th of a second image



evidence of auditory sensory memory, called … memory, can occur after someone says, "what did I just say" Even if you weren't paying attention, you can retrieve about the last eight words from echoic memory



evidence of visual sensory (..) memory: George sperling's experiments



George sperling exposed people to a 1/20th of a second view of a grid of letters, followed by a … which old them which row of letters to pull from iconic memory and recall. without the tone, people recalled about … percent of the letters; with the tone, recall for any of the rows was typically … percent

tone; 50; 100


George miller proposed that we can hold … information bits. more recent research suggests that the avg person, free from distraction can hold about: … digits, … letters, or … words

7 +/- 2; 7; 6; 5


working memory, which uses …, …, …, …, and other processing, has greater capacity than .. memory. the capacity of working memory varies; some people have better …

rehearsal; focus; analysis; linking; short-term memory; concentration


Lloyd Peterson and Margaret Peterson wanted to know duration of short-term memory. their experiment:
1. people were given triplets of …
2. to prevent …, the subjects had to do a distracting task
3. people were then tested at various times for …

consonants; rehearsing; recall