Flashcards in Mod 20 Deck (30)
we learn from experience:
when we learn to .. events we already like or don't like by noticing other .. or ... that happen first
when our actions have ...
when we watch what ...
predict; events; sensations; consequences; other people do
we learn by association:
when two stimuli (events or sensations) tend to occur ... or in ...
when actions become associated with ... or ... results
when two pieces of information are ...
together; sequence; pleasant; aversive; linked
classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an even to which we
have ar eaction
operant conditioning: changing ... choices in response to ...
cognitive learning: acquiring new behaviors and information through ... and ..., rather than by ...
observation; information; direct experience
associative learning: classical conditioning--> after repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence, we ...
result: our natural response to one stimulus now can be ... by the new, predictive stimulus
assocciate those stimuli with each other; triggered
cognitive learning refers to acquiring new behaviors and information ..., rather than by ...
mentally; direct experience
cognitive learning occurs by ... events and the behavior of others and by using .. to acquire information about events experienced by others
the term behaviorism was used by John B. Watson, a proponent of ..., as well as by B.F. Skinner, a leader in research about ...
classical conditoning; operant conditioning
both watson and skinner believed the mental life was much less important than ... as a foundation for ...
behavior; psychological science
both watson and skinner foresaw applications in controlling human behavior:
skinner conceived of ... communities
watson went into ...
while studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been ... such as:
just seeing food, seeing the dish, seeing person who brought food and hearing that person's footsteps
neutral stimulus: a stimulus which does not
trigger a response
unconditioned stimulus and response; a stimulus which triggers a response .., before/without any ...
the UR and the CR are the same .., triggered by different ...--> the difference is whether ... was necessary for the response to happen
response; events; conditioning
the NS and the CS are the same ...--> the difference is whether the stimulus triggers the ...
stimulus; conditioned response
higher-order conditioning: turning an ... into a ... by associating it with another ...
NS; CS; CS
acquisition refers to the initial stage of ../...
what gets acquired? the association between a ... and ...
NS; unconditioned stimulus
how can we tell that acquisition has occurred?the UR now gets ... by a ...
timing: for the association to be acquired, the neutral stimulus needs to repeatedly appear ... the unconditioned stimulus...about a .. before, in most cases
the strength of a CR grows with ...
extinction refers to the diminishing of a ... response. If the US stops appearing with the CS, the ... decreases
After a CR has been conditioned and then extinguished: following a rest period, .... might occur--> a return of the conditioned response despite a lack of further ...
if the CS is again presented repeatedly without the US, the CR becomes ... again
spontaneous recovery; conditioning; extinct
generalization refers to the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by
discrimination refers to the learned ability to only respond to a ..., preventing ...
specific stimuli; generalization
(Pavlov's legacy) insights about conditioning in general--> it occurs in all creatures, it is related to biological ... and ...
(Pavlov's legacy) insights about science--> learning can be studied ..., by quantifying actions and isolating ... of behavior
(Pavlov's legacy) insights from specific applications--> substance abuse involves ..., and these triggers can be avoided/associated with new responses