Mod 20 Flashcards Preview

psych > Mod 20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mod 20 Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...

we learn from experience:
when we learn to .. events we already like or don't like by noticing other .. or ... that happen first
when our actions have ...
when we watch what ...

predict; events; sensations; consequences; other people do


we learn by association:
when two stimuli (events or sensations) tend to occur ... or in ...
when actions become associated with ... or ... results
when two pieces of information are ...

together; sequence; pleasant; aversive; linked


classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an even to which we

have ar eaction


operant conditioning: changing ... choices in response to ...

behavior; consequences


cognitive learning: acquiring new behaviors and information through ... and ..., rather than by ...

observation; information; direct experience


associative learning: classical conditioning--> after repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence, we ...
result: our natural response to one stimulus now can be ... by the new, predictive stimulus

assocciate those stimuli with each other; triggered


cognitive learning refers to acquiring new behaviors and information ..., rather than by ...

mentally; direct experience


cognitive learning occurs by ... events and the behavior of others and by using .. to acquire information about events experienced by others

observing; language


the term behaviorism was used by John B. Watson, a proponent of ..., as well as by B.F. Skinner, a leader in research about ...

classical conditoning; operant conditioning


both watson and skinner believed the mental life was much less important than ... as a foundation for ...

behavior; psychological science


both watson and skinner foresaw applications in controlling human behavior:
skinner conceived of ... communities
watson went into ...

utopian; advertising


while studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been ... such as:
just seeing food, seeing the dish, seeing person who brought food and hearing that person's footsteps

neutral stimuli


neutral stimulus: a stimulus which does not

trigger a response


unconditioned stimulus and response; a stimulus which triggers a response .., before/without any ...

naturally; conditioning


the UR and the CR are the same .., triggered by different ...--> the difference is whether ... was necessary for the response to happen

response; events; conditioning


the NS and the CS are the same ...--> the difference is whether the stimulus triggers the ...

stimulus; conditioned response


higher-order conditioning: turning an ... into a ... by associating it with another ...



acquisition refers to the initial stage of ../...

learning; conditioning


what gets acquired? the association between a ... and ...

NS; unconditioned stimulus


how can we tell that acquisition has occurred?the UR now gets ... by a ...

triggered; CS


timing: for the association to be acquired, the neutral stimulus needs to repeatedly appear ... the unconditioned stimulus...about a .. before, in most cases

before; half-second


the strength of a CR grows with ...



extinction refers to the diminishing of a ... response. If the US stops appearing with the CS, the ... decreases

conditioned; CR


After a CR has been conditioned and then extinguished: following a rest period, .... might occur--> a return of the conditioned response despite a lack of further ...
if the CS is again presented repeatedly without the US, the CR becomes ... again

spontaneous recovery; conditioning; extinct


generalization refers to the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by

related stimuli


discrimination refers to the learned ability to only respond to a ..., preventing ...

specific stimuli; generalization


(Pavlov's legacy) insights about conditioning in general--> it occurs in all creatures, it is related to biological ... and ...

drives; responses


(Pavlov's legacy) insights about science--> learning can be studied ..., by quantifying actions and isolating ... of behavior

objectively; elements


(Pavlov's legacy) insights from specific applications--> substance abuse involves ..., and these triggers can be avoided/associated with new responses

conditioned triggers


john b. watson and classical conditioning: playing with fear --> in 1920, 9-month-old little albert wasn't afraid of rats. watson and rosalie rayner than clanged a steel bar every time a rat was presented to albert. albert acquired a ..., and generalized this fear to other ... and ... things. watson prided himself in his ability to shape people's ... and later went into advertising

fear of rats; soft; furry; emotions