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Flashcards in Mod 18 Deck (33)
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we encounter waves of ... and our eyes respond to some of these. our brain turns these energy wave sensations into ...

electromagnetic radiation; colors


we perceive the wavelength/frequency of electromagnetic waves as ... or ...
we perceive the height/amplitude of these waves as ..., or ...

color; hue; intensity; brightness


light from the candle passes through the ... and the ... and gets focused and inverted by the ... the light then lands on the ... where it begins the process of ... into neural impulses to be sent out through the ...

cornea; pupil; lens; retina; transduction; optic nerve


the lens is not ...; it can perform ... by changing .. to focus on near or far objects

rigid; accommodation; shape


there is an area of missing information in our field of vision known as the ... this occurs because the eye has no ... at the place where the optic nerve leaves the eye

blind spot; receptor cells;


when light reaches the back of the retina, it triggers chemical changes in the receptor cells, called ... and ... These in turn send messages to ... and ... and on to the ...

rods; cones; ganglion; bipolar cells; optic nerve


rods help us see the ... and ... actions in our .. view and in the ... Rods are about .. times more common than cones, which help us see ... in ...

black; white; peripheral; dark; 20; sharp colorful details; bright light


the images we "see" are not made of light; they are made of ... which can be produced even by .. on the eyeball. once neural signals enter the optic nerve, they are sent through the ... to the ...

neural signals; pressure; thalamus; visual cortex


some ganglion cells in the eye send signals directly to the ... in response to certain features such as ...,, certain ..., ..., or ...

visual cortex; visual patterns; edges; lines; movements


in and around the visual cortex of the occipital lobe, .. integrate these feature signals to recognize more ... forms such as faces

supercells; complex


turning light into the mental act of seeing:
... --> ... --> ... --> ... --> ...

light waves; chemical reactions; neural impulses; features; objects


parallel processing refers to building ... out of sensory details processed in different areas of the brain



young-helmholtz trichromatic theory: there are three types of color receptor cones: ..., ..., and ... all the colors we perceive are created by light waves stimulating ...

red; green; blue; combinations of these cones


people missing red cones or green cones have trouble differentiating ... from ...,

red; green


opponent-process theory refers to the neural process of perceiving ... as the opposite of perceiving ...; similarly, yellow vs. blue, and red vs. green are opponent processes

white; black


we have perceptual processes for enabling us to organize perceived colors and lines into objects:
grouping incomplete parts into ...
seeing figures standing out against ...
perceiving ..., ..., and ...
keeping a sense of ... and ... despite changes in visual information
using ... to guide visual interpretation

gestalt wholes; background; form; motion; depth; shape; color constancy; experience


gestalt refers to a meaningful .../... forming a ... that is more than the sum of its parts

pattern; configuration; whole


three of the ways we group visual information into wholes are ..., ..., and ...

proximity; continuity; closure


binocular (using both eyes) cues exist because humans have ... in the front of our head. this gives us ...; the two eyes have slightly different views, and the more different the views are, the ... the object must be.

two eyes; retinal disparity; closer


interposition: when one object appears to ... of another, we assume that the blocking object is in a position ... our eyes and the blocked object

block the view; between;


monocular cue: relative size- we intuitively know to interpret familiar objects (of known size) as ... when they appear ...

farther away; smaller


monocular cues: linear perspective and interposition--> the flowers in the distance seem farther away because the rows ... our brain reads this as a sign of ...

converge; distance


we tend to perceive the higher part of a scene as ...

farther away


shading helps our perception of ..



monocular cues: relative motion-- when we are moving, we can tell which objects are ... because it takes ... to pass them

farther away; longer


objects moving toward us: we perceive this motion by watching the ... of an object

changing apparent size


objects moving to one side: we perceive ..., although we often judge huge objects ...

relative motion; inaccurately


objects traveling in a more complex path, such as in an arc through the air coming toward us: baseball players, and even dogs, can run right to where a fly ball is going to land by keeping the ball in a .... in the sky

constant apparent position


our ability to see objects as appearing the same even under different lighting conditions, at different distances and angles, is called ... This is a ... process
examples: color and brightness constancy, shape and size constancy

perceptual constancy; top-down


color constancy: this ability to see a ... in changing ....

consistent color; illumination