Flashcards in Mod 27 Deck (40)
Cognition refers to … and … associated with thinking, knowing, remembering,a nd communicating information
mental activities; processes
cognition can include .., …, and assembling new info into …
reasoning; judgment; knowledge
cognition also supports these other psychological processes: …, …, …, …, …, …, …, …, and …
attention; emotion; consciousness; perception; learning; memory; language; mental health; social interaction
A concept is a mental grouping of similar …, …, …, …, and/or …, etc
objects; events; states; ideas; people
a concept can be represented and communicated by an …, or by a … such as "chair," "party," or "democracy"
we think we form concepts by definitions. but, we often form concepts by developing …, that is, mental images of the best … of a concept
definitions; prototypes; example
we tend to mold our memories and perceptions to fit …
prototypes fail us when examples stretch our ..,. as in considering whether a stool is a chair
prototypes fail us when the … between concepts is fuzzy, as in judging blue-green colors or computer-blended faces
prototypes fail us when examples … our prototypes, such as considering whether a whale is a mammal, or a penguin is a bird
problem solving refers to the thinking we do in order to answer a … or to figure out how to resolve an …
complex question; unfavorable situation
strategies for arriving at solutions include:
trial; error; algorithms; heuristics; insight
trial and error involves trying various … and if that fails, trying others
an algorithm is a step by step … for solving a problem, methodically leading to a specific solution
a heuristic is a short-cut, step-saving … or … which generates a solution quickly (but possibly in error)
thinking strategy; principle
insight refers to a sudden …, a leap forward in …, that leads to a solution
Saltin was a monkey who saw a banana out of his reach, had an … moment when he saw the stick in the room and used it to get the banana. the monkey had never previously …
ah ha; used a tool
insight refers to a …, a leap forward in thinking, that leads to a solution
we say "aha" and feel a sense of satisfaction when an answer seems to pop into our minds
joke punchlines rely on ..
sudden realization; sudden insight
there are certain tendencies in human cognition which make it more difficult to find correct solutions to problems:
…, …, and …
confirmation bias; fixation/mental set; heuristics
confirmation bias refers to our tendency to search for information which .., disregarding ..
confirms our current theory; contradictory evidence
Peter Wason's selection test: '
he gave the sequence of number "2,4,6" he asked students to guess his .., and ask him whether other certain numbers fit the rule --> study of …
rule; confirmation bias
the ultimate test of our mastery of confirmation bias in psychology might be our ability to avoid confirmation bias in ...
mental set: the tendency to approach problems using a … (procedures and methods) that has … previously
fixation: the tendency to get stuck in one way of …; an inability to see a problem from a ...
thinking; new perspective
the human cognitive style of making judgments and decisions is more … than …
the quick-acting, automatic source of ideas we use instead of … is known as ...
careful reasoning; intuition
as with problem-solving, there are mental habits which make intuition-style judgments simpler and quicker, but may lead to errors:
the availability …
all of these habits enable us to quickly make hundreds of small gut decisions each day without bothering with systematic reasoning
heuristic; overconfidence; belief perseverance; framing
we use the availability heuristic when we estimate the … of an event based on how much it … in our mind, that is, how much it's available as a mental reference
likelihood; stands out
overconfidence in judgments refers to our tendency to be more … than … we overestimate the accuracy of our estimates, predictions, and knowledge