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Flashcards in Mod 11 Deck (23)
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behavior genetics: study how heredity and environment contribute to …

human differences


genes: the building blocks of heredity and development; genes are parts of .. , which are found in chromosomes in the nuclei of cells

DNA molecules


chromosomes are made of …, which are made of …
chromosome: threadlike structure made largely of DNA molecules
DNA: a spiraling, complex molecules containing genes

DNA; genes


the human genome includes includes … chromosomes in 23 sets matched sets; each chromosome has the same …
this includes the X and Y chromosomes, not a matched set in males, who are missing some genes on the Y

46; gene locations


A biological parent donates … his/her set of chromosomes to his/her offspring



we received half a set of chromosomes from each …

biological parent


the genome: an organism's entire collection of



human genomes are so nearly … that we can speak of one universal human genome



genes are … that have the ability to direct the assembly of … that build the body. this genetic protein assembly can be turned on and off by the …., or by other genes. Any trait we see is a result of the complex interactions of many genes and countless other molecules

molecules; proteins; environment;


fraternal "twins" from separate eggs are not any more genetically alike than

other siblings


to assess the impact of nature and nurture, how do we examine how genes make a difference within the same environment?
study traits of … vs …
see if the siblings vary more than twins

siblings; identical twins


studies of twins in adulthood show that identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins in:
… such as extraversion (sociability) and neuroticism (emotional instability)
…/… such as the rate of divorce
… such as overall intelligence test scores

personality traits; behaviors; outcomes; abilities


similarities found in identical twins despite being raised in different homes:
styles of … and …
…/… test scores

…, …
specific …
…, …

personality; thinking; relating; abilities; intelligence; attitudes; interests; tastes; fears; brain waves; heart rate


studies have been performed with adopted children for whom the biological relatives are known. findings: adopted children seem to be more similar to their … relatives than their …/…. relatives

genetic; environmental/nurture


despite the strong impact of genetics on personality, parenting has an influence on:
... beliefs

religious; values; manners; attitudes; politics; habits


if parenting has an influence, why are siblings so different?
siblings only share … their genes
genetic differences become … as people react to them differently
siblings are raised in slightly different families; the youngest has more older siblings and has older (wiser? more tired?) parents

half; amplified;


... is another difference not caused by parenting. from infancy into adulthood, most people do not seem to change … (defined as a person's general level and style of … reactivity)

temperament; temperament; emotional


according to some researchers, three general types of temperament appear in infancy: …, …, slow to ...

easy; difficult; warm up


evolutionary psychology is the study of how evolutionary principles help explain the … and … of the human mind, traits, and behaviors

origin; function


some topics in evolutionary psychology:
… and …
evolutionary success may help explain …
an evolutionary explanation of .. .

natural selection; adaptation; similarities; human sexuality


Dmitri balyaev and Lyudmila trut spent 40 yrs selecting the most gentle, friendly, and tame foxes from a fox population, and having those reproduce. as a result, they were able to shape avoidant and aggressive creatures into … ones, just as wolves were once shaped into dogs



a possible human genetic legacy: 'illogical' moral reasoning
it might be 'logical' to kill one innocent person if it would enable five other innocent people to live. research shows that most people can imagine .., but cannot picture …

letting the one person die; killing the person themselves


mating preferences:
first issue-quantity (of mating)
generally, men think more than women about …, and men are more likely to think that casual sex is …
why might natural selection have resulted in greater male promiscuity? men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes … and even … in the next generation. and there is little … to spreading extra genes
for women, a trait of promiscuity would not greatly increase the number of babies, and it would have greater …

sex; acceptable; continue; spread; cost; survival costs