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Flashcards in Mod 2 Deck (15)
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criticial thinking refers to a more careful style of ... and ... knowledge than simply using intuition. in addition to the ..., critical thinking will help us develop more effective and accurate ways to figure out what makes people ..., ..., and ...the things they do.

forming; evaluating; scientific method; do; think; feel;


the brain is designed for ... and ..., but it is not the best tool for seeing ... clearly

surviving; reproducing; reality


natural thinking style fails in the following ways: '
...: "I knew it all along"
the ... error, or mistakenly perceiving ... in ...
... error: "I am sure I am correct"

hindsight bias; coincidence; order; random events; overconfidence


Hindsight bias: when you see most results of psychological research, you might say "that was ..."
it's like a crystal ball that we use to predict the past



hindsight bias- why call it bias?
the mind builds its current wisdom around ... we are "..." in favor of ...

what we have already been told; biased; old information


(overconfidence error) performance:
we are much too certain in our ...
we overestimate our ..., our ... of work, our ..., and our degree of ...

judgments; performance; rate; skills; self-control


(overconfidence error) accuracy: we overestimate the accuracy of our ... people are much more certain than they are accurate
overconfidence is a problem in ... and on ... if you feel confident that you know a concept, try explaining it to someone else

knowledge; eyewitness testimony; tests


from an evolutionary perspective:
hindsight bias might be an offshoot of our useful habit of ... and trying to figure out why it...
perceiving order helps us make ...; we just need to test these and not overdo it
overconfidence error might help us ...; ... builds confidence in followers more than accuracy does --> sometimes our intuition gives the right answer, which makes us trust it even more

analyzing an event; occurred; predictions; lead other people; certainty


making our ideas more accurate by being



to be scientific you'll need to be ...-observe the world in a ... way so that the information you collect will find out something clear and specific that might be true about people in general
also need scientific ...

systematic; controlled; attitude


(scientific attitude) curiosity: always ..

always asking new questions


(scientific attitude) skepticism: not accepting a 'fact' as true without ...; seeing if 'facts' can withstand attempts to ...
skepticism, like curiosity, generates ...

challenging it; disprove them; questions


(scientific attitude) humility: seeking the ... rather than trying to ...; a scientist needs to be able to accept ...

truth; be right; being wrong


critical thinking: analyzing information to decide if it makes ..., rather than simply ... it
goal: getting at the ..., even if it means putting aside your own ...

sense; accepting; truth; ideas


critical thinking entails:
look for hidden ... and decide if you agree
look for hidden ..., ...,..., or ... connections
put aside your own ... and ... and look at the ...
consider if there are other possible ... for the facts or results
see if there was a flaw in how the information was ...

assumptions; bias; politics; values; personal connections; assumptions; biases; evidence; explanations; collected