MOD 3.1 - Chronic Inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOD 3.1 - Chronic Inflammation Deck (42):
1

Give three ways in which chronic inflammation can arise

- Permanent tissue damage/ damage not resolved within a few days

- Can arise out of nowhere e.g. Autoimmune conditions or chronic infections

- Can happen alongside acute inflammation i.e. It's severely persistent/repeated

2

What does chronic inflammation look like?

- Very diverse so need to look at microscopic appearance

- Type of cell present is most important

3

Which cells are most associated with chronic inflammation? Give two details about them

- Macrophages

- Lots of granular cytoplasm
- Big, digest foreign material

4

What do macrophages derive from?

Blood monocytes - have varying levels of activation

5

Give three functions of macrophages

- Good at phagocytosis

- Picking up and presenting of antigens

- Synthesis of molecules

6

Give four molecules that are synthesised by macrophages

- Cytokines
- Complements
- Proteases
- Clotting factors

7

What do lymphocytes look like under the microscope?

- Lots of blue dots

- Large, round nucleus

8

What is the function of lymphocytes?

Differentiate into:

- B-lymphocytes (plasma cells) - antibody production
- T-Lymphocytes - control and cytotoxic functions

9

What do Eosinophils look like under the microscope?

Bright pink circles with a bilobed nucleus

10

What are the functions of Eosinophils? (3)

Mediation in response to:
- Allergic reactions
- Parasite infections
- Some tumours

11

What is the function of a fibroblast?

Production of collagen after being recruited by macrophages

12

What is a giant cell?

Multinucleate cell made by the fusion of macrophages due to frustrated phagocytosis

13

When are giant cells formed?

When one macrophage cannot easily phagocytose the foreign material

14

What are the three types of giant cell and where can they be found?

- Langhans (tuberculosis)
- Foreign body type
- Touton (Fat necrosis)

15

Describe the appearance of a Langhans giant cell

Horseshoe of nuclei

16

Describe the appearance of a foreign body type giant cell

- Disorganised

- Many little groups of nuclei

17

Describe the appearance of Touton giant cells

- Horseshoe/circle of nuclei

- Foamy outside of cell

18

Describe the morphology of chronic inflammation

Mostly non specific

19

Which condition causes tissue to become rich in plasma cells?

Rheumatoid arthritis

20

Which condition causes tissue to become rich in mainly lymphocytes

Chronic gastritis

21

Which condition causes tissue to become rich in mainly macrophages?

Leishmaniasis

22

Give the effects of chronic inflammation (4)

- Fibrosis

- Impaired function

- Atrophy

- Stimulation of immune response

23

How is scar tissue (fibrosis) formed due to chronic inflammation?

Happens due to multiple episodes of acute inflammation

24

Describe the occurrence of cirrhosis

- Fibrosis and impaired function

- Disorganisation of architecture and attempted regeneration

25

Give two conditions of chronic inflammation where fibrosis results

- Cholecystitis (swelling of gallbladder due to blockage of cystic duct)

- Peptic ulcers

26

Why do peptic ulcers form?

Form due to an imbalance of acid production and mucosal defence

27

Give an example of a condition where chronic inflammation has caused impaired function

Inflammatory bowel disease e.g. Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease

28

What is the difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease?

UC = superficial, crypt abscesses and distorted crypt architecture common

C = Transmural, Fistulae and strictures

29

What is a fistula?

An abnormal connection between two epithelium-lined organs

30

What is a stricture?

The narrowing of a tubular structure

31

What is atrophy? Give an example of atrophy that has arisen due to chronic inflammation

- Loss of functional tissue

- Atrophic gastritis = loss of gastric mucosa

32

Give an example of a condition that arises due to the stimulation of the immune system as a result of chronic inflammation

- Rheumatoid arthritis (can be localised or systemic)

33

How do localised and systemic rheumatoid arthritis differ?

- Localised = destruction of joints

- Systemic = Other organs are affected and can cause amyloidoses

34

What is granulomatous inflammation?

Chronic inflammation with granulomas

35

What is a granuloma?

A cohesive group of macrophages and other immune cells

36

When does granulomatous inflammation arise?

- Hypersensitivity reactions

- Persistent low grade antigenic stimulation

37

What are the causes of granulomatous inflammation? (3)

- Mildly irritant foreign material

- Infections e.g. Mycobacteria and some fungi

- Unknown e.g. Crohn's disease, Sarcoidosis

38

What are the effects of an infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis? (4)

- Fibrosis

- Erosion in bronchioles

- Empyema

- Erosion in blood

39

What is the definition of chronic inflammation?

The chronic response to injury with associated fibrosis

40

What is a foreign body granuloma?

- Granuloma that contains:

- Macrophages

- Giant cells

- Foreign body

- Epithelioid cells

- Some peripheral fibroblasts

- Very few lymphocytes

41

What are the cell types in a hypersensitivity/immune granuloma?

- Macrophages

- Giant cells (usually langhans)

- Epithelioid cells (more prominent)

- Fibroblasts

- Lymphocytes

42

Give a property of hypersenstivity granulatomas. Where can they normally be found?

- Can undergo central necrosis

- Granulatomas associated with tuberculosis

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