MOD 8.1 - Neoplasia 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOD 8.1 - Neoplasia 1 Deck (35):
1

What is the definition of benign neoplasia?

The abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initiating stimulus has been removed

2

Describe the appearance of a benign neoplasia

- Rounded mass due to the pushing growth

- Remains at the site of origin

3

What is the definition of malignant neoplasia?

The abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initiating stimulus has been removed and invades and spreads to distant sites

4

Describe the appearance of a malignant neoplasia

- Irregular and has a 'craggy' shape due to infiltrative growth edge

- May spread to a distant site and form a secondary growth

5

What is an oncogene?

A proto-oncogene that has been permanently activated

6

What are the hallmarks of cancer?

- Self sufficient growth signals

- Resistance to anti growth signals

- Grow indefinitely

- Induce new blood vessels

- Resistance to apoptosis

- Invade and produce metastases

7

Give an example of a self sufficient growth signal. How is this significant?

- HER2 gene amplification (breast cancer)

- Promotes cell proliferation
- Opposes apoptosis

8

How can deletion of the CDKN2A gene lead to resistance to anti-growth signals?

Opposes apoptosis

9

What can happen to cause a cell to grow indefinitely?

- Activation of the telomerase gene

- Elongates telomeres on chromosomes = provides a selective growth advantage

10

How can cancer cells cause angiogenesis?

Activate expression of VEGF

11

What causes resistance to apoptosis in neoplastic cells?

- BCL2 gene translocation (lymphoma)

12

What can cause production of metastases after invasion?

Altered E-cadherin invasion

13

How are neoplasms monoclonal?

Descend from a common ancestral cell as a cell population

(common ancestral cell = the one that was originally mutated so could grow uncontrollably)

14

Describe a benign neoplasm

- Little variation in size and shape

- Low mitotic count, normally shaped

- Well differentiated i.e. look like host tissue

15

Describe a malignant neoplasm

- Variation in size and shape can be varied

- Can have a low to high mitotic count, potentially abnormally shaped

- Differentiation is varied from low to high

16

What is dysplasia?

Abnormal maturation cells within a tissue

17

How are neoplasms classified?

- Whether they are benign or malignant

- By tissue type i.e. epithelial, connective tissue, lymphoid/haematopoietic, germ cell

18

What would a benign neoplasm of stratified squamous epithelium be called?

- Squamous papilloma e.g. of the skin

- Any tumour with finger like projections

19

What would a benign neoplasm of transitional epithelium be called?

- Transitional cell papilloma

e.g. of the bladder mucosa

20

What would a benign neoplasm of glandular epithelium be called?

Adenoma e.g. adenomatous polyp of the colon

21

What would a malignant neoplasm of stratified squamous epithelium be called?

Squamous cell carcinoma

e.g. of the skin, larynx etc

22

What would a malignant neoplasm of transitional epithelium be called?

Transitional cell carcinoma

e.g. of the bladder/ureters

23

What would a malignant neoplasm of glandular epithelium be called?

Adenocarcinoma e.g. of the stomach

24

What is leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma?

- Leiomyoma = benign neoplasm of smooth muscle

- Leiomyosarcoma = malignant neoplasm of smooth muscle

25

What are fibroma and fibrosarcoma?

- Fibroma = benign neoplasm of fibrous tissue

- Fibrosarcoma = malignant neoplasm of fibrous tissue

26

What are osteoma and osteosarcoma?

- Osteoma = benign neoplasm of bone

- Osteosarcoma = malignant neoplasm of bone

27

What are chondroma and chondrosarcoma?

- Chondroma = benign neoplasm of cartilage

- Chondrosarcoma = malignant neoplasm of cartilage

28

What are lipoma and liposarcoma?

- Lipoma = benign neoplasm of fat

- Liposarcoma = malignant neoplasm of fat

29

What are neurofibroma and neurofibrosarcoma?

- Neurofibroma = benign neoplasm of the nerve

- Neurofibrosarcoma = malignant neoplasm of the nerve

30

What are neurilemmoma and neurilemmosarcoma?

- Neurilemmoma = benign neoplasm of the nerve sheath

- Neurilemmosarcoma = malignant neoplasm of the nerve sheath

31

What are glioma and malignant glioma?

- Glioma = benign neoplasm of glial cells

- Malignant glioma = malignant neoplasm of glial cells

32

What is a myeloma?

A malignant plasma cell neoplasm formed in the bone marrow that destroys adjacent bone

33

What is a lymphoma?

- Malignant neoplasm of B and T cells

- Occurs in lymphoid tissue

e.g. [non] hodgkins lymphoma

34

What is leukaemia?

- Haematopoietic malignant neoplasm

- Occurs in bone marrow

- Abnormal cells enter blood after

35

Give some types of germ cell neoplasm

- Malignant teratoma (testis)

- Seminoma (testis)

- Benign teratoma/dermoid cyst (ovary)

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