Flashcards in MOD 6.1 - Atheroma Deck (13):
What is atheroma?
The accumulation of intra and extracellular lipid in the tunica intima and tunica media of large and medium arteries
What does atheroma lead to?
What is atherosclerosis?
The thickening and hardening of arterial walls due to atheroma
What is arteriosclerosis?
The thickening of arterial and arteriolar walls as a result of hypertension or diabetes mellitus
Give FIVE examples of effects of Atheroma if it's severe
- Abdominal aortic aneurysm
- Peripheral vascular disease
- Mesenteric Ischaemia
- Cerebral Ischaemia
- Ischaemic Heart Disease
What can peripheral vascular disease result in? (2)
- Ischaemic rest-pain
What can mesenteric ischaemia result in? (3)
- Ischaemic colitis (inflammation)
What can cerebral ischaemia result in? (3)
- Transient ischaemic attack
- Multi infarct dementia
What are the causes of endothelial injury? (4)
- Haemodynamic stress
- Increased LDL in the blood
What are the effects of endothelial injury? (2)
- Increased lipid uptake and oxidation
- Platelet adhesion
- Migration of monocytes into the tunica intima
What are the early microscopic changes during the formation of atheroma?
- Proliferation of smooth muscle cells
- Accumulation of foam cells
- Lipid is laid down around/between smooth muscle cells
What are the later microscopic changes during the formation of atheroma?
- Cholesterol clefts form
- Inflammatory cells may be present