MOD 6.1 - Atheroma Flashcards Preview

ESA 2 > MOD 6.1 - Atheroma > Flashcards

Flashcards in MOD 6.1 - Atheroma Deck (13):
1

What is atheroma?

The accumulation of intra and extracellular lipid in the tunica intima and tunica media of large and medium arteries

2

What does atheroma lead to?

Atherosclerosis

3

What is atherosclerosis?

The thickening and hardening of arterial walls due to atheroma

4

What is arteriosclerosis?

The thickening of arterial and arteriolar walls as a result of hypertension or diabetes mellitus

5

Give FIVE examples of effects of Atheroma if it's severe

- Abdominal aortic aneurysm

- Peripheral vascular disease

- Mesenteric Ischaemia

- Cerebral Ischaemia

- Ischaemic Heart Disease

6

What can peripheral vascular disease result in? (2)

- Gangrene

- Ischaemic rest-pain

7

What can mesenteric ischaemia result in? (3)

- Ischaemic colitis (inflammation)

- Malabsorption

- Infarction

8

What can cerebral ischaemia result in? (3)

- Transient ischaemic attack

- Stroke

- Multi infarct dementia

9

What are the causes of endothelial injury? (4)

- Haemodynamic stress

- Hypertension

- Toxins

- Increased LDL in the blood

10

What are the effects of endothelial injury? (2)

- Increased lipid uptake and oxidation

- Platelet adhesion

- Migration of monocytes into the tunica intima

11

What are the early microscopic changes during the formation of atheroma?

- Proliferation of smooth muscle cells

- Accumulation of foam cells

- Lipid is laid down around/between smooth muscle cells

12

What are the later microscopic changes during the formation of atheroma?

- Fibrosis

- Necrosis

- Cholesterol clefts form

- Inflammatory cells may be present

13

What are the later later microscopic changes during formation of atheroma?

- Disruption of internal elastic lamina that extends into media

- Ingrowth of blood vessels

- Fissuring of plaque

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