Flashcards in MSK - Femoral Triangle Deck (24):
What is the superior border of the femoral triangle?
- The inguinal ligament
- Runs from ASIS to the pubis tubercule
What forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle?
The medial border of sartorius
What forms the inferior border of the femoral triangle?
The medial border of adductor longus
What forms the roof of the femoral triangle? (Anterior)
The fascia lata
What forms the base of the femoral triangle? (Posterior)
- Adductor longus
What are the contents of the femoral triangle?
(Lateral to medial order please)
- Femoral nerve
- Femoral artery
- Femoral vein (draining from great saphenous)
- Femoral canal (structure containing deep lymph nodes and vessels)
What contains the femoral artery, vein and canal?
The femoral sheath (a fascial compartment)
Where can the femoral pulse be palpated within the femoral triangle?
- Inferior to where the femoral artery crosses the inguinal ligament
(artery crosses midway between pubic symphysis and ASIS)
What is the significance of feeling a femoral pulse?
Means that blood is reaching the lower extremitites
Why is the femoral artery easy to access?
Located superficially within the femoral triangle
Name two ways in which the femoral artery can be used clinically?
- For coronary angiographies
- Drawing blood for arterial blood gases
What is a coronary angiography?
- Catheterisation of the femoral artery
- Tube is moved up external iliac artery, common iliac artery, aorta and into the coronary vessels
- Radioactive dye is then injected
- Thickening/blockages can be seen with an x-ray
What happens during a femoral hernia?
- Part of the bowel impinges on the femoral canal, underneath the inguinal ligament
- Manifests as a lump in the femoral triangle
What is the treatment of a femoral hernia?
Usually surgical intervention
What is the femoral canal?
An anatomical area in the anterior thigh. It is the smallest and most medial part of the femoral sheath and measures ~1.3cm
What are the four borders of the femoral canal?
- Medial = Lacunar ligament
- Lateral = Femoral vein
- Anterior border = Inguinal ligament
- Posterior border = Pectineal ligament, superior rami of the pubi and the pectineus muscle
What is the opening/superior border of the femoral canal?
The femoral ring enclosed by a layer of connective tissue (femoral septum)
What pierces the femoral septum?
Lymphatic vessels of the canal
What are the contents of the femoral canal?
- Lymphatic vessels (drain deep inguinal lymph nodes)
- Deep lymph nodes - lacunar node
- Empty space
- Loose connective tissue
What is the significance of the empty space?
- Allows distension of adjacent femoral vein
- Can cope with increased venous return/intra-abdominal pressure
How is the femoral canal clinically relevant?
It is a common site of bowel herniation
What is a femoral hernia? How does it present?
- Part of the small intestine pushes through the femoral ring
- A lump inferolaterally to the pubic tubercule
Are femoral hernias more common in a certain population? Why?
- Yes, in women
- Have a wider bony pelvis