MOD 7.1 - Cell Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOD 7.1 - Cell Adaptations Deck (29):
1

What is the definition of regeneration?

Cell losses are replaced by identical cells that originate from stem cells

2

Describe the regenerative ability of smooth muscle and striated muscle

- Smooth = good

- Striated = limited

3

Describe the regenerative ability of:
- Epithelia

- Adipocytes

- Mesothelia

- Melanocytes

- Epithelia = good

- Adipocytes = unable

- Mesothelia = good

- Melanocytes = usually too much/too little

4

Describe the regenerative ability of articular cartilage and tendons

Poor

5

What stimulates regeneration?

- Cell to cell communication

- Growth factors

6

What is reconstitution?

Replacement of a lost part of the body

7

What is hyperplasia?

The increase in tissue or organ size due to an increase in cell number (not permanent cells)

8

Give 2 pathological examples of hyperplasia

- Eczema

- Thyroid goitres

9

Give 2 physiological examples of hyperplasia

- Endometrium under the influence of oestrogen

- Bone marrow when hypoxic

10

What is hypertrophy?

The increase in tissue or organ size due to an increase in cell size (permanent cell populations)

11

How are hyperplasia and hypertrophy similar?

- Reversible

- Physiologically controlled

12

What causes hypertrophy?

- Increased functional demand

- Hormonal stimulation

- Leads to more structural components

13

What is compensatory hypertrophy?

One organ in a pair takes on the workload of the other due to loss of function/removal

14

Give 2 physiological examples of hypertrophy

- Skeletal muscle

- Smooth muscle of the pregnant uterus

15

Give 2 pathological examples of hypertrophy

- Cardiac muscle

- Prostate gland (causes hypertrophy of bladder smooth muscle)

16

Give 3 examples of causes of cardiac muscle hypertrophy

- Valvular disease

- Hypertension

- Athletes (have chance to recover so no bad side effects)

17

What is atrophy?

The shrinkage of an organ or tissue due to an acquired decrease in size/ decrease in number of cells

18

Give three pathological examples of causes of atrophy

- Disuse

- Denervation (muscle)

- Inadequate blood supply (inadequate o2 and nutrition)

19

Give a physiological example of a cause of atrophy

- Ovarian atrophy in post menopausal women

20

What is the cause of organ/tissue atrophy?

A combination of atrophy and apoptosis

21

What is metaplasia?

The reversible change of one differentiated cell for another (non permanent cells). Most clear in epithelia

22

What is the cause of metaplasia?

Adaptation under stress

23

What is dysplasia?

The abnormal maturation of cells within a tissue

24

What is atresia?

The absence of abnormal narrowing of an opening or passage in the body

25

What is involution?

The normal programmed shrinkage of an organ

26

What is aplasia?

The lack of development of a specific organ/tissue in the embryo

27

What is hypoplasia?

The under/incomplete development of a tissue/organ in the embryo

28

Under what conditions do scars form? (3)

- Cell population is permanent

- High amount of damage

- Persistent harm

29

Under what condition does resolution occur? (3)

- Removal of harm

- Labile cell population

- Limited damage

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