MSK 3.1 - Humerus, Radius And Ulna Flashcards Preview

ESA 2 > MSK 3.1 - Humerus, Radius And Ulna > Flashcards

Flashcards in MSK 3.1 - Humerus, Radius And Ulna Deck (24):
1

How should the humerus be orientated?

- Head should be superior and medial
- Medial epicondyle should be medial
- Olecrannon fossa should be on posterior surface

2

Describe the salient features of the proximal humerus (5)

- Head
- Anatomical neck
- Greater tubercule
- Lesser tubercule
- Intertubercular sulcus

3

Describe the salient features of the shaft of the humerus (2)

- Deltoid tuberosity

- Radial groove

4

Describe the features of the distal humerus (5)

- Supraepicondylar ridges
- Later and medial epicondyles
- Trochlea
- Capitulum
- Fossae (Coronoid, Radial, Olecrannon)

5

What are the 8 centres of ossification of the humerus?

- Head
- Shaft
- Greater and lesser tubercules
- Medial and lateral epicondyles
- Trochlea x2

6

Describe the risks of a fracture to the surgical neck of the humerus

- Due to a fall on an outstretched hand/ direct blow
- Axillary nerve and posterior circumflex artery are at risk of damage
- Damage to Axillary nerve causes paralysis to deltoid and Teres minor

7

Describe the risks of a fracture to the shaft of the humerus

- Mid shaft fracture can damage radial nerve and profunda brachii artery
- Results in unopposed Flexion (wrist drop)
- Can result in loss of sensation to dorsal surface of hand

8

Describe the risks of a fracture to the distal humerus

- Due to a fall on a flexed elbow
- Can cause damage to ulnar nerve or brachial artery
- Volkmanns ischaemic contractures can lead to uncontrolled Flexion of the hand
- Damage to ulnar nerve can cause an ulnar claw

9

Describe the shape of the radius

- Head = disc shaped

- Shaft = Triangular in cross section

10

How is the radius orientated?

- Head is superior

- Styloid process points towards the thumb

11

What are the salient features of the proximal radius? (2)

- Head at radio ulnar joint

- Radial tuberosity

12

Describe a salient feature of the shaft of the radius

Middle of shaft is where pronator teres attaches

13

Describe the salient features of the distal radius

- Styloid process
- Ulnar notch - articulates with ulna at distal radioulnar joint

14

Where are the ossication centres of the radius and when do they fuse?

- 3 centres (shaft and at either end)

- Distal epiphysis fuses between 14-17
- Proximal epiphysis fuses between 17-19

15

Describe the potential fractures of the radius (2)

- Caused by a fall on an outstretched hand

- Colles fracture = Distal structures are posteriorly displaced
- Radial head fracture = forced into Capitulum

16

Describe the shape of the ulna

- Head = Lots of projections and notches

- Shaft = is triangular proximally and cylindrical distally

17

How is the ulna orientated?

- Olecranon process and trochlea need to be superior

- Radial notch needs to be lateral

18

Describe the salient features of the proximal ulna (5)

- Olecranon process
- Coronoid process
- Trochlear notch
- Radial notch
- Tuberosity of the ulna

19

Describe the salient features of the distal ulna

- Styloid process

20

What are the four centres of ossification of the ulna?

- Olecranon x2

- Shaft X1

- Distal end X1

21

What is the clinical relevance to a fracture of the Olecranon process?

- Due to a fall on a flexed elbow

- Triceps brachii can displace a fragment proximally

22

What is the clinical relevance of a Monteggias fracture?

- Caused by a force from behind the ulna

- Fractures proximal shaft of ulna but dislocates radial head anteriorly

23

Describe the clinical relevance of a Galeazzis fracture

- Due to a fracture of the distal radius

- Dislocates ulna head at distal radioulnar joint

24

Describe the shape of the humerus

- Smooth hemispheric head
- Cylindrical head
- Widens into a condyle distally

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