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Flashcards in MSK - Joints Deck (21):

What are the THREE structural classifications of joints?

- Fibrous

- Cartilaginous

- Synovial


What are the THREE functional classifications of joints?

- Diarthroses (Freely moveable)

- Amphiarthrosis (Slightly movable)

- Syarthrosis (Immovably fixed)


Describe the structure of a fibrous joint

- No synovial cavity

- Fibrous connective tissue holds the bones close

- Little movement is allowed


What are the THREE types of fibrous joints?

- Sutures

- Syndesmoses

- Gomphosis


Describe suture and give an example

- Thin layer of connective tissue between bones

- Skull bones

- Synarthrotic so immovably fixed


Describe syndesmoses and give an example

- Higher amount of connective tissue

- Amphiarthrotic so slightly movable

- Tibiofibular joint


Describe gomphosis and give an example

- Cone shaped peg fitting into a socket

- Synarthrotic so immovably fixed

- Dental-alveolar joint (teeth to bony sockets in maxillary bone and mandible)


Describe the structure of cartilaginous joints

- No synovial cavity

- Bones connected by cartilage

- Little movement


What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?

- Syndochondroses

- Symphysis


Describe a syndochondrotic joint and give an example

- Bones are connected by hyaline cartilage

- Synarthrotic so immovably fixed

- Epiphyseal plates or 1st sternocostal joint


Describe a symphysic joint and give an example

- Fibrocartilaginous fusion of two bones

- Amphyarthrotic so slightly movable

- Pubic symphysis


Describe the structure of synovial joints

- Have a synovial cavity and articular cartilage

- Have an articular capsule (with an outer fibrous capsule and an inner synovial membrane)

- Rich in blood and nerves


What are the 6 types of synovial joint? Give an example of each

Clue: Please Have Poos Cautiously Sat Back

- Planar e.g. Sternoclavicular joint

- Hinge e.g. Knee

- Pivot e.g. Atlas around dens of axis

- Condyloid/ellipsoidal e.g. wrist

- Saddle e.g. trapezium and first metacarpal

- Ball and socket e.g. shoulder


Describe the movement of synovial joints

Diarthrotic so are freely movable


What are the FOUR types of movement at a synovial joint?

- Gliding

- Angular

- Rotation

- Special


Describe the movement of a gliding synovial joint

- Non axial i.e. no movement in any plane, can only slip

- Planar joints e.g. acromioclavicular joint


Describe the movement of an angular synovial joint

- Flexion
- Extension
- Abduction

- Moves distally but is stable proximally


Describe the movement of a rotating synovial joint

- Turns lengthways in its own axis

- Medial rotation = internal movement
- Lateral rotation = external movement


What are the special movements of synovial joints?

- Elevation/depression

- Protraction/retraction

- Inversion/eversion e.g. sole of foot moves medially or laterally

- Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion

- Supination/pronation

- Opposition


What mechanisms contribute to the stability of a joint?

- Articular surfaces (arrangement, shape and size)

- Ligaments (more = more stable)

- Muscle tone in surroundings

- Bursae


What are bursae? What are is function?

- Fluid filled sacs

- Decrease friction between articulating surfaces

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