Flashcards in Module 1 (part of test 1) Deck (105):
using specific drugs for prevention, diagnosis, and tx of specific problems
The science of the preparation and dispensing of medicinal drugs
What are Index Terms
The drug name/abbreviation of generic drug
What is the Pharmacological Category
What the drug is used for
A Generic name is the ______ name. It is a drug that is no longer?
protected by patent
lidocaine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, diazepam....these are examples of _____ named drugs
The Brand/Trade name is the ______ ______ name. It is a drug that is?
protected by patent
Xylocaine, Advil, Tylenol, Valium....these are examples of ______ named drugs?
The study of the Harmful effects of drugs
What is the study of How a drug works and how it moves?
What year did drugs first have to be prescribed?
What year was the DEA established
Pharmacology is the study of _____ their ____ and _____ and how they effect _____
What class of drugs has the highest degree of abuse potential?
PCP, LSD, Heroin....all types of Class ____ drugs because?
can't be filled in a pharmacy
Morphine, Oxycodone (percocet), Methylophenudate (Ritalin), Cocaine.....all types of Class _____ drugs because?
Loratab, codeine, anabolic steroids....all types of Class _____ drugs because?
What Class Drugs do you have to get a WRITTEN prescription and has some safe medical use
What Class Drugs can you have an oral or written prescription?
Phenobarbital, Valium, Xanax....all types of Class ______ drugs because?
What class of drugs may be prescription or OTC?
Cough medicine with codeine are examples of class _____ drugs because?
Very low risk
Knowing how much (mg/dose) to give before you see a response has to deal with the ______/________?
Dose Response Curve
Increasing a drugs dosage produces what?
no additional therapeutic response
As the dose of the drug increases a _____ is reached?
maximal response / Plateau
What occurs then the therapeutic response of a drug cannot be increased with a higher dose?
How much drug is needed to produce a response
A drug that has high potency will need a ___ amount of drug to produce a therapeutic response?
Potency is expressed as the?
Median Effective Dose (ED50)
If a drug has a ______ ED50 it is more potent
Efficacy is the _______ of a drug
Efficacy refers to differences in the ______ that drugs will produce at ANY dose?
More drug ______ ______ give better results but could?
What is a ratio of a drugs toxic dose (LD) to its therapeutic dose (ED)
A safe drug will have a ____ Therapeutic Index (TI)
The Lethal dose kills _______ of the subjects, while the ED does what?
produces a response
Digitalis and Coumadin are examples of drugs with a ______ TI and therefore need to be?
Drugs with a High TI have _____ side effects?
An _________ is an unexpected effect of a drug?
Ritalin is a stimulant that actually CALMS kids with ADHD....this is an example of an?
What produces an allergic response?
An allergy is due to a disorder of the?
A_______ develops in response to an antigen?
Antibodies are present because or past ____, ____, or are transferred from?
What is an antigen?
anything the body sees as foreign that produces ann immune response
What must take place for a true allergic response?
mast cells must release histamine
histamine causes vessels to _______ and bronchi to _____
What are symptoms of a true allergic reaction.
rash, hives, dyspnea, decreased BP
Any substance that, when taken into the living organism, may modify one or more of its functions is called a ______?
A _______ is not biologically active and is used in controlled drug studies?
The effect of a placebo?
satisfy patient demand
Due to ________ a larger dose is required to obtain the same response as an original dose?
The Therapeutic Effect is the ______ effect, or the clinically ____ action?
An effect other than intended is called a ____?
Example of a side effect:
Morphine Therapeutic Effect = pain relief
Morphine Side Effect = ?
nausea or dizziness
______ drugs have side effects?
The ______ ______ is when a side effect becomes harmful
A _______ is a substance that causes birth defects?
Example of a Teratogen:
Thalidomide - used for morning sickness1961
caused short arms and legs or no arms/legs
Carcinogen is _____ causing?
What is the new term used for Addiction?
Drug Dependence can be either ______ or ______
_____ is a psychological dependence or habit?
(po) is an abréviation for?
Nitro tabs/spray are examples of ______ drugs
Nitro tabs dilate _______ which nourish the heart muscle?
What are the benefits of oral administration of drugs?
many forms available
parenteral administration is by what means?
any other means than by mouth / rectum
The Absorption phase is bypassed by using what route of administration?
Administration of drugs into the bone marrow is termed?
Disadvantages of IV administration
high allergic rate
greater side effects
Disadvantages of IM administration
temperature and muscularity affect absorption
Lidocaine and Insulin are examples of ______ routes of administration
Disadvantage of topic (inhaled/gel/cream)
The TB test is an example of a _____ injection
Narcotics and Antibiotics are typically injected by means of ________ ?
Nicoderm patch, Birth control, Nitroglycerin are examples of ______ administration?
Bronchodilatos and nitrous oxide are examples of _____ administered drugs?
What are the 4 layers of the transdermal patch? From outside in?
Distribution deals with transporting drugs?
Absorption deals with transporting drugs?
across cell membrane
In order for a drug to have a pharmacological effect of tissues it must cross the?
What 3 pharmokinetic characteristics needed for a drug to pass through barriers?
Cells have a ______ membrane
The cell membrane has a ______, hydro____ outside and a ________, hydro_____ inside
The ONLY drugs to pass the blood-brain barrier are _____ soluble drugs?
Physical States of drug:
From fastest absorption rate to slowest?
Ionized ( charged ) drugs absorb _____ than unionized (neutral) drugs?
MOST drugs are absorbed by ______ diffusion
If a drug is too large or too polar...A _____ is needed in facilitated diffusion
______ diffusion moves drugs against the concentration gradient and requires energy?
What 2 factors affect absorption
blood ph is ____ to ______
When a drug leaves the blood it is distributed to ___ or enters the _____
Drugs must be in a ____ soluble form to be excreted?
When a drug molecule is altered it is called a _______
What is the major route of fluoride elimination
Kidney ( Urine)
The ______ transforms lipid soluble drugs in order for them to be excreted in the urine?
The _______ is the primary site of biotransformation
The ability of the liver to bio-transform drugs is _____ determined
The mechanism of action of a drug is?
what the drug DOES!
Pain receptor found in?
Fever recepto found in?
Receptors are usually _______
Lock and Key Concept:
In order to produce a result a specific _____ is needed?