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Flashcards in Module 1 (part of test 1) Deck (105):
1

Pharmacotherapy

using specific drugs for prevention, diagnosis, and tx of specific problems

2

Pharmacy

The science of the preparation and dispensing of medicinal drugs

3

What are Index Terms

The drug name/abbreviation of generic drug

4

What is the Pharmacological Category

What the drug is used for

5

A Generic name is the ______ name. It is a drug that is no longer?

official
protected by patent

6

lidocaine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, diazepam....these are examples of _____ named drugs

generic

7

The Brand/Trade name is the ______ ______ name. It is a drug that is?

Drug Manufacturer
protected by patent

8

Xylocaine, Advil, Tylenol, Valium....these are examples of ______ named drugs?

Brand/Trade

9

The study of the Harmful effects of drugs

Toxicology

10

What is the study of How a drug works and how it moves?

Pharmacodynamics/kinetics

11

What year did drugs first have to be prescribed?

1951

12

What year was the DEA established

1970

13

Pharmacology is the study of _____ their ____ and _____ and how they effect _____

drugs
origin
properties
living organisms

14

What class of drugs has the highest degree of abuse potential?

Class 1

15

PCP, LSD, Heroin....all types of Class ____ drugs because?

1
can't be filled in a pharmacy

16

Morphine, Oxycodone (percocet), Methylophenudate (Ritalin), Cocaine.....all types of Class _____ drugs because?

2
High Risk

17

Loratab, codeine, anabolic steroids....all types of Class _____ drugs because?

3
Moderate risk

18

What Class Drugs do you have to get a WRITTEN prescription and has some safe medical use

Class 2

19

What Class Drugs can you have an oral or written prescription?

Class 3/4

20

Phenobarbital, Valium, Xanax....all types of Class ______ drugs because?

4
Low risk

21

What class of drugs may be prescription or OTC?

Class 5

22

Cough medicine with codeine are examples of class _____ drugs because?

5
Very low risk

23

Knowing how much (mg/dose) to give before you see a response has to deal with the ______/________?

Dose Response Curve

24

Increasing a drugs dosage produces what?

no additional therapeutic response

25

As the dose of the drug increases a _____ is reached?

maximal response / Plateau

26

What occurs then the therapeutic response of a drug cannot be increased with a higher dose?

Ceiling Effect

27

Define Potency?

How much drug is needed to produce a response

28

A drug that has high potency will need a ___ amount of drug to produce a therapeutic response?

smaller

29

Potency is expressed as the?

Median Effective Dose (ED50)

30

If a drug has a ______ ED50 it is more potent

lower

31

Efficacy is the _______ of a drug

effectiveness

32

Efficacy refers to differences in the ______ that drugs will produce at ANY dose?

maximum effect

33

Efficacy:
More drug ______ ______ give better results but could?

will not
be detrimental

34

What is a ratio of a drugs toxic dose (LD) to its therapeutic dose (ED)

Therapeutic Index

35

A safe drug will have a ____ Therapeutic Index (TI)

high

36

The Lethal dose kills _______ of the subjects, while the ED does what?

1/2
produces a response

37

Digitalis and Coumadin are examples of drugs with a ______ TI and therefore need to be?

LOW
monitored closely

38

Drugs with a High TI have _____ side effects?

few

39

An _________ is an unexpected effect of a drug?

Idiosyncrasy

40

Ritalin is a stimulant that actually CALMS kids with ADHD....this is an example of an?

Idiosyncrasy

41

What produces an allergic response?

Allergen

42

An allergy is due to a disorder of the?

Immune System

43

A_______ develops in response to an antigen?

antibody

44

Antibodies are present because or past ____, ____, or are transferred from?

infections
immunizations
mother

45

What is an antigen?

anything the body sees as foreign that produces ann immune response

46

What must take place for a true allergic response?

mast cells must release histamine

47

histamine causes vessels to _______ and bronchi to _____

dilate
constrict

48

What are symptoms of a true allergic reaction.

rash, hives, dyspnea, decreased BP

49

Any substance that, when taken into the living organism, may modify one or more of its functions is called a ______?

drug

50

A _______ is not biologically active and is used in controlled drug studies?

placebo

51

The effect of a placebo?

satisfy patient demand

52

Due to ________ a larger dose is required to obtain the same response as an original dose?

Tolerance

53

The Therapeutic Effect is the ______ effect, or the clinically ____ action?

intended
desirable

54

An effect other than intended is called a ____?

side effect

55

Example of a side effect:
Morphine Therapeutic Effect = pain relief
Morphine Side Effect = ?

nausea or dizziness

56

______ drugs have side effects?

All

57

The ______ ______ is when a side effect becomes harmful

toxic effect

58

A _______ is a substance that causes birth defects?

Teratogen

59

Example of a Teratogen:

Thalidomide - used for morning sickness1961
caused short arms and legs or no arms/legs

60

Carcinogen is _____ causing?

Cancer

61

What is the new term used for Addiction?

Drug Dependence

62

Drug Dependence can be either ______ or ______

psychological
physiological

63

_____ is a psychological dependence or habit?

habituation

64

(po) is an abréviation for?

orally

65

Nitro tabs/spray are examples of ______ drugs

sublingual

66

Nitro tabs dilate _______ which nourish the heart muscle?

coronary vessels

67

What are the benefits of oral administration of drugs?

simple
many forms available

68

parenteral administration is by what means?

any other means than by mouth / rectum

69

The Absorption phase is bypassed by using what route of administration?

IV

70

Administration of drugs into the bone marrow is termed?

Intra-osseous Infusion

71

Disadvantages of IV administration

Phlebitis
not retrievable
high allergic rate
greater side effects

72

Disadvantages of IM administration

temperature and muscularity affect absorption

73

Lidocaine and Insulin are examples of ______ routes of administration

subcutaneous

74

Disadvantage of topic (inhaled/gel/cream)

tissue sloughing

75

The TB test is an example of a _____ injection

intra-dermal

76

Narcotics and Antibiotics are typically injected by means of ________ ?

Intramuscular

77

Nicoderm patch, Birth control, Nitroglycerin are examples of ______ administration?

transdermal (topical)

78

Bronchodilatos and nitrous oxide are examples of _____ administered drugs?

inhalation

79

What are the 4 layers of the transdermal patch? From outside in?

Impermeable Membrane
Drug Reservoir
Membrane
Adhesive

80

Distribution deals with transporting drugs?

through body

81

Absorption deals with transporting drugs?

across cell membrane

82

In order for a drug to have a pharmacological effect of tissues it must cross the?

Blood/tissue barrier

83

What 3 pharmokinetic characteristics needed for a drug to pass through barriers?

Neutral PH
Lipid soluble
Small

84

Cells have a ______ membrane

bi-phospholipid

85

The cell membrane has a ______, hydro____ outside and a ________, hydro_____ inside

polar, philic
non-polar, phobic

86

The ONLY drugs to pass the blood-brain barrier are _____ soluble drugs?

lipid

87

Physical States of drug:
From fastest absorption rate to slowest?

Gas
Liquid
Solid

88

Ionized ( charged ) drugs absorb _____ than unionized (neutral) drugs?

slower

89

MOST drugs are absorbed by ______ diffusion

Passive

90

If a drug is too large or too polar...A _____ is needed in facilitated diffusion

carrier protein

91

______ diffusion moves drugs against the concentration gradient and requires energy?

active

92

What 2 factors affect absorption

pka
ph

93

blood ph is ____ to ______

7.35-7.45

94

When a drug leaves the blood it is distributed to ___ or enters the _____

extracellular fluid
Intracellular Space

95

Drugs must be in a ____ soluble form to be excreted?

water

96

When a drug molecule is altered it is called a _______

metabolite

97

What is the major route of fluoride elimination

Kidney ( Urine)

98

The ______ transforms lipid soluble drugs in order for them to be excreted in the urine?

liver

99

The _______ is the primary site of biotransformation

Liver

100

The ability of the liver to bio-transform drugs is _____ determined

genetically

101

The mechanism of action of a drug is?

what the drug DOES!

102

Aspirin:
Pain receptor found in?
Fever recepto found in?

brain
hypothalamus

103

Receptors are usually _______

macromolecules

104

Lock and Key Concept:
In order to produce a result a specific _____ is needed?

receptor

105

An antagonist combines with receptor site but, _______?

can't elicit a response