Module 5 (part of test 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 5 (part of test 2) Deck (88):
1

HTN is a _______ ______ BP?

sustained
elevated

2

What is a normal BP?

< 120/80

3

What is HTN-2?

>160/110

4

What is Pre-HTN?

120-139/85-89

5

What is HTN-1?

140-159/90-99

6

Anti-HTN drugs act on what body systems?

Vascular
Cardiac
Renal
Sympathetic

7

Anti-HTN drugs decrease ______, ______ output, and peripheral vascular _______?

BP
cardiac
resistance

8

What is the NORMAL resting cardiac output?

5 liters/min

9

Your BP is regulated by what body systems?

PNS
SNS
Kidneys

10

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

11

What are the 3 main functions of the kidney?

filter
absorb
secrete

12

What were the FIRST drugs used in the treatment of HTN?

Diuretics- 1950

13

What was the PROTOTYPE Diuretic?

Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

14

Diuretics increase the ________ production and inhibit the _______ in the distal tubules?

urine
Na reabsorption

15

What are the 3 classes of diuretics?

Thiazides
Loop
Potassium-Sparing

16

What are 3 side effects of Diuretics?

Xerostomia
Dehydration
Orthostatic Hypotension

17

What is the primary diuretic used to treat HTN?

Thiazide Diuretics

18

Thiazides act in the _____ _____ of the kidney to inhibit ______?

distal tubule
NaCl reabsorption

19

Why do patients taking Thiazides have to take a potassium supplement?

Because they cause Hypokalemia

20

Are Thiazides safe for Diabetics? Why/Why Not?

No- Causes Hyperglycemia

21

Thiazides can cause ________ which would affect pts. with Gout?

Hyperuricemia

22

Thiazides can cause an increase in someones total ______

Cholesterol
(hyperlipidemia)

23

What common OTC drug can interfere with Thiazides?

NSAID

24

NSAID's cause rapid _______ in pts. using Thiazides?

BP elevation

25

What dosage of Epinephrine can we give someone who is on a Thiazide Diuretic?

.04mg (cardiac dose)

26

Epinephrine can cause _______ ________ on a pt. who is taking Thiazide Diuretics?

indirect vasoconstriction

27

What are the 2 common Thiazide Medications?

Lotensin (benazepril)
Diuril (chlorothiazide)

28

What kind of Diuretic is the MOST effective?

Loop Diuretics

29

One down side to Loop Diuretics is that they cause severe _______ loss and ________ _______?

K (potassium)
Orthostatic Hypotension

30

Loop Diuretics are great in pts. with _______ because they can cause rapid _____?

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Diuresis

31

Loop diuretics inhibit NaCl reabsorption in what areas of the kidney?

loop of henle
distal tubule

32

Loop diurectics cause a hypo______ which in turn causes decreased release of _____ by the ______?

kalemia
insulin
pancreas

33

What was the PROTOTYPE Loop Diuretic?

Lasix (furosemide)

34

What Medications can inhibit Lasix?

Cholesterol Meds

35

What kind of Diuretic is a "puny" one with a "K" catching ability?

Potassium-Spariing

36

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics inhibit ____ reabsorption with a reduction of K _____

Na
excretion

37

What is the MOST important potassium-sparing diuretic medication?

Dyrenium (triamterene)

38

Do we have to restrict Epi use in LA with potassium-sparing drug use?

NO

39

Beta-Blocking Drug names usually end in?

"olol"

40

Beta Blockers block the action of _____ and ____ and inhibit the ____-__-_____ response of the SNS?

Epi
Nor-epi
flight-or-fight

41

Non-Specific Beta-Blockers decrease the ___ and _____ of cardiac contraction?

rate
force

42

Inotropic means?

altering contraction forces

43

Non-Specific Beta Blockers have a ___ inotropic effect?

Negative

44

What are the 2 common Non-Specific Beta Blocking drugs?

Corgard (Nadolol)
Coreg (carvedial)

45

Which of the 2 Non-Specific Beta Blockers works the BEST?

Coreg (carvedial)

46

Do we have to restrict Epi use in LA with Non-selective Beta Blockers?

Yes- give cardiac dose

47

What are 2 common side effects of non-specific beta blocking drugs?

sexual dysfunction
Bronchoconstriction

48

What receptors do SELECTIVE Beta Blockers act on?

Beta 1 (heart)

49

What are the 2 common Selective Beta Blocking Drugs?

Tenormin (atenolol)
Lopressor (metoprolol)

50

Do we have to restrict Epi use in LA with Selective Beta Blocking Drugs?

Yes- give cardiac dose

51

Alpha 1 Blockers cause vaso______ therefore decreasing _____

dilation
BP

52

Alpha 1 Blockers are also used in the tx. of?

BPH (benign prostatic Hypertrophy)

53

What OTC drugs can affect the kidneys Na excretion when mixed with an Alpha 1 Blocker?

NSAID

54

An Alpha 2 Blocker prevents ______ from being released at the heart which leads to a ______ of the blood vessels?

Nor-Epi
relax

55

What common Alpha 2 Blocker is used in the treatment of ADHD also?

Clonidine (catapres)
* also can tx menopause, nicotine, and narcotic withdrawal

56

In teh 1980's What medication was used in the treatment of ANGINA?

Calcium Channel Blockers

57

Calcium Channel Blockers are now the MOST widely used drug of choice to tx?

HTN

58

Calcium Channel Blockers decreases the ______ and ______ of the heart as well as the demand for ______?

contractility
conductivity
oxygen

59

Calcium Channel Blockers inhibit the influx of Calcium into the ____ and ______muscle which relaxes the ______ to decrease BP?

cardiac
smooth
arterioles

60

What is the most common Calcium Channel Blocking Medication?

Procardia (nifedipine)

61

A small amount of people may experience what oral symptom while taking Calcium Channel Blockers?

Gingival Hypertrophy

62

When your BP increases the kidneys excrete ____ which decreases the ____ _____ and ______ ______?

Sodium
Blood Volume
Cardiac Output

63

What is produced and secreted by the kidney in response to a decrease in renal blood flow?

Renin

64

Renin initiates the production of ________

Angiotensin 2

65

Angiotensin 2 is a ____ which causes _____?

hormone
vasoconstriction of all blood vessels

66

What kind of drugs inhibit the secretion and production of Renin?

ACE- Inhibitors

67

What is the most common ACE-inhibitor Medication?

Lotensin (benaxepril)

68

What are 2 common oral side effects of ACE- inhibitors?

Taste Changes
Angioedema of lips/face/tongue

69

What medications are used to prevent and treat Coronary Ischemias and Chest Pain?

Anti-Anginals

70

What are the 3 types of drugs used to treat Angina Pectoris?

Nitrates
Ca Channel Blockers
Non-selective/selective Beta Blockers

71

Nitrates act ______ on the heart?

indirectly

72

Nitrates relax _______ muscle and dilate the ______ ________ which increases the amount of ______ in the blood?

vascular smooth
coronary arteries
oxygen

73

What is the PROTOTYPE Nitrate Drug?

Nitroglycerin

74

Nitroglycerin is administered _______ because of its rapid onset?

sublingually (spray/tab)

75

The side effects of Nitroglycerin are _____ and are due to?

headache, dizziness
vasodilation

76

What is the term given to an inability of the ventricles to pump enough blood to meet the demands?

Cardiac Failure

77

A Healthy heart has good _______, ______, and _____

contractility
beats
electrical impulses

78

What side of the heart fails first in Cardiac Failure?

L

79

What is the most common type of drug used to treat Congestive Heart Failure?

Cardiac Glycosides

80

What is the Cardiac Glycoside PROTOTYPE drug?

Digitalis

81

Glycosides have a _______ therapeutic index?

narrow
(toxic and therapeutic dose are very close )

82

Glycosides increase the _____ and ______ of a contraction which decreases ______ because of the increased efficiency of the heart?

force
strength
edema

83

How do Glycosides enhance the contractility of the heart?

by increasing the Ca Concentration

84

What are some common side effects of Glycosides?

gag reflex/salivation increased
Headache
Arrhythmias (at toxic level)

85

What 2 drugs increase the blood levels of Digoxin in 10% of pts?

Tetracycline
Erythromycin

86

What is a common Sodium channel blocking drug used to treat arrhythmias?

Lidocaine (xylocaine)

87

What is a common potassium channel blocking drug used to treat arrhythmias?

Cordarone ( amiodarone)

88

Do we have to restrict Epi in LA for pts. on anti-arrhythmia medication?

NO