Module 4 (part of test 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 4 (part of test 2) Deck (113):
1

Hypertension is when the blood in _____ is ______ than the space available?

vessels
greater

2

The source of the pressure in Hypertension is?

pumping of the heart

3

Arteries _____ to the heart have the highest pressure?

closest (aorta)

4

Where is the most common place to get an aneurysm?

descending aorta

5

_______ pressure is the pressure created when the ventricles CONTRACT?

Systolic (high number)

6

Diastolic Pressure is when the ventricles _______

relax

7

The resting resistance is modified by the _______ of the arteries?

elasticity

8

Normal BP?

120/80

9

Hypertension BP?

160/100

10

Pre-Hypertensive BP?

121/89

11

What are the 3 factors that create pressure?

Cardiac Output
Peripheral Resistance
Blood Volume

12

What is the basic underlying defect in hypertension?

failure in regulating vascular resistance

13

If you increase viscosity or volume of blood you _______resistance?

increase

14

_______million is the US have hypertension?

65

15

Young- men are at _______ risk
Old- men are at ________risk

higher
less

16

Hypertension is seen with ________Hypertrophy?

L ventricular

17

If hypertension is untreated it will decrease your life span by?

10-20 yrs.

18

Sustained hypertension eventually results in ______ and _______

arterial damage
multiple complications

19

_______ hypertension is found in 90% of hypertensive pts. and has no identifiable cause?

Essential-Primary-Idiopathic

20

Secondary Hypertension is due to?

underlying condition

21

Secondary Hypertension is most commonly due to _______disorders?

renal

22

Hypertensive Oral Manifestations are due to?

Medications used to treat hypertension

23

What are 3 common oral manifestations due to medications used to treat hypertension?

Xerostomia
Ulcerations
Lichenoid Reaction

24

We should avoid using LA with _____ in it for pts. that are hypertensive?

epi

25

An inability of the ventricles to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic demands is termed?

Congestive Heart Failure

26

Congestive Heart Failure most often begins with _______?

L ventricular failure

27

Left Ventricular Failure is initiated by?

increased workload
Myocardium Disease

28

Left Ventricular Failure leads to ______ Of the ventricle and _______ in the lungs?

hypertrophy
fluid accumulation

29

Congestive Heart Failure is also referred to as?

L Ventricular Failure

30

What is the most common cause of right-sided heart failure?

L ventricle failure

31

If the R-side of the heart fails first it is associated with what two problems?

congenital heart defects
emphysema

32

R-sided heart failure causes blood to back up into the ________ which causes ______?

peripheral veins
peripheral edema (swollen ankles/feet)

33

50-60% of pts. with severe symptoms of CHF die within?

1 yr

34

50% of pts. with less severe symptoms of CHF die within?

3-5 yrs

35

NYHA stands for?

New York Heart Association

36

NYHA Class _____ of CHF has MARKED limitation of activity which causes symptoms?

3

37

NYHA class _______ of CHF has no limitations of physical activity?

1

38

NYHA class ________ of CHF has slight limitations of activity and slight symptoms?

2

39

What are the slight symptoms present in a class 2 CHF?

fatigue
palpitations
dyspnea

40

Class 4 CHF has symptoms present at _____ and worsen on ______ physical exertion?

rest
any

41

We CANT use vasoconstrictors (epi) on class ______ or ____

3
4

42

What is the term used to describe alternating episodes of hyperventilation and apnea during sleep?

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

43

A pt. with Heart Failure will have Inspiratory _____ and _____, ______ breathing?

rales (crackles)
shallow
rapid

44

Ascites is defined as?

accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

45

The peritoneal cavity is?

membrane separating the organs in the abdomen.

46

What is the most common cause of Ascites?

liver disease

47

What is pitting edema?

pressure indent that persists when pressure is removed.

48

Oral Manifestations of CHF are _____ related?

drug

49

Untreated or Uncontrolled CHF:
Should we do elective tx?

NO

50

CHF pts. who are under control should be in a ________ chair position and watch for signs of _______ __________?

semi-supine
orthostatic hypotension

51

What is the hierarchy of Oxygen Depravation?

Coronary Artery Disease leads to
Ischemia which leads to
Infarction

52

Any reduction in blood supply to the heart will result in a?

ischemia

53

What is the most common cause of Coronary Artery Diseas?

Atherosclerosis

54

What coronary artery is called the "widow maker"

L coronary artery

55

Ischemia means?

insufficient blood supply

56

In Ischemia the cells are ______ but can't _____

alive
function

57

What is the leading cause of death in ages 65 and older in the U.S.

Coronary Artery Disease

58

_ in ___ teenagers already have pathologic initial thickening of coronary arteries?

1 in 6

59

____are more likely to have an ischemic heart?

men 5:1

60

Myocardial Ischemia is manifested clinically as __ pain called?

brief
angina pectoris

61

Myocardial ischemias being with accumulation of?

lipid laden cells in blood vessels

62

What are the 3 types of lesions associated with Myocardial Ischemia?

fatty streaks
fibrous plaque
complicated plaque

63

Everyone has _______ _______ or early benign deposits in their vessels?

fatty streaks

64

A complicated plaque consists of what 4 things?

fibrin
fibrous tissue
calcium
lipid deposits

65

The most important symptom of myocardial infarction is?

pain

66

If a pt. is having radiating pain in lower jaw this is a huge sign of?

Myocardial Infarction

67

____Angina is predictably reproduced and relieved by cessation of activity or with nitro?

stable

68

unstable angina has pain that is _____ in frequency and precipitated by ______ effort and occurs while _______ as well?

increasing
less
rest

69

Any variation in the normal rhythm of the heart beat is termed a?

arrhythmias

70

An arrhythmia may be a disturbance of what 3 things?

rate
rhythm
conduction

71

The _____ node is the "pacemaker" of the heart?

SA

72

What is the pattern of Sequential Depolarization?

SA node
AV node
Bundle of HIS
R and L bundle branches
Purkinje Fibers

73

What node is considered the "vice president"

AV node

74

What is an abnormal conduction pathway between the atria and ventricles which stimulates the ventricles to contract PREMATURELY?

Wolff- Parkinson- White
(AV tachycardias)

75

A heart rate of less than _____/min is called a bradycardia?

60

76

_______ is heart rate (at rest) greater than 100/min?

tachycardia

77

Ventricular tachycardia almost always occurs with diseased hearts because?

heart works too hard to get more oxygen to the body

78

A Fibrillation is a "_______"

quiver

79

Ventricular Fibrilations are _____ but _____ contractions?

rapid
ineffective

80

_________ disease is the most common form of heart disease predisposing ventricular fibrillation?

ischemic heart disease

81

What is the term for NO CONTRACTION of the ventricles?

ventricular asystole

82

No pulse = ________

ventricular asystole

83

What do you do to treat ventricular asystole?

defibrillator

84

What are signs of a slow heart rate?

fatigue
dizziness
palpitation

85

What are signs of a SUSTAINED high heart rate?

syncope
angina
congestive heart failure

86

What is the tx used most often to fix arrhythmias?

medication

87

COPD stands for

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

88

COPD is a general term characterized by _____ airflow ______ from the lungs?

chronic
limitation

89

What are the 2 common diseases classified as COPD?

Chronic Bronchitis
Emphysema

90

In Emphysema you can't get air _____?

out of lungs

91

What is the most important factor in the etiology of COPD?

Smoking

92

Chronic bronchitis has excessive ______ production due to increased size of ____ glands and _____ cells?

mucous
mucous
goblet

93

Chronic Bronchitis pts. have a chronic ____ with _____ production?

cough
sputum

94

Chronic Bronchitis is caused by a _____ of small airways, mucous _____ or a loss of _____?

narrowed/collapsed
plugs
surfactant

95

Emphysema is seen with a loss of _____ ______ and an enlargement of air spaces _____ to the ______ ______?

elastic recoil
distal
terminal bronchioles

96

Emphysema complications:
pulmonary ______
___- sided heart failure
low ______

hypertension
R
oxygen (hypoxemia)

97

Can you use Nitrous oxide in a pt. with COPD?

NO

98

What is a CHRONIC inflammatory respiratory disease termed?

Asthma

99

Asthma is associated with increased airway __________

hyperresponsiveness

100

Asthma is provoked by?

allergens (antigen)

101

Asthma is an ____ respiratory infection?

upper

102

Asthma is the result of bronchial smooth muscle _____ and mucous _____

spasm
hypersecretion

103

What is the most common cause of Asthma?

Extrinsic ( allergens-pollen etc.)

104

Mild asthma occurs?

less than 2 x wk

105

Moderate asthma occurs?

more than 2 x wk

106

____Asthma limits normal activity and occurs when you sleep as well?

severe

107

What can we use on Asthma pts. to decrease stress of dental appts.?

Nitrous

108

Do we use LA with or without epi on asthma pts.?

without

109

What is the etiology of TB

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

110

How is TB transmitted?

airborne droplets of mucus or saliva

111

Replication of the TB virus occurs where?

in the Macrophage

112

You could have TB and have a NEGATIVE skin test for up to how long?

6-8 wks after exposure to virus

113

TB signs and symptoms are _____ and similar to a cold/flu?

nonspecific