Module 10 (part of test 4) Flashcards Preview

Dental Medicine 1 > Module 10 (part of test 4) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 10 (part of test 4) Deck (85):
1

Penicillins have a ___ _____ _____ structure?

beta-lactam ring

2

Penicillins interfere with?

bacterial cell wall synthesis

3

Narrow spectrum antibiotics are effective agains what bacteria?

gram -

4

Gram + bacteria have an increased _____ in their cell wall?

peptidoglycan

5

Penicillin resistant bacteria produce?

B-lactanase

6

What is added to penicillin to restore its effectiveness against resistant strains?

Clavulanate

7

Amoxicillin + Clavulanate = _________

Augmentin

8

What is the prototype natural penicillin?

Penicillin-G

9

NAme 1 Narrow spectrum NATURAL penicillin?

Penicillin-V

10

You should take narrow spectrum antibiotics with ______ to protect your GI and with ______ to protect your esophagus?

yogurt
water

11

Amoxicillin and Trimox are examples of?

broad spectrum antibiotics

12

What drug has a broader range than penicillins and has similar actions?

cephalosporins

13

What is the 1st Generation cephalosporin?

Keflex

14

What is the name of the 2nd Generation cephalosporin and what is the difference from the 1st generation?

Ceclor
affects gram - also

15

What is the name of the 3rd Generation Cephalosporin? What makes it special?

Rocephin
Used in conjunction with L/A
Is a broad gram (-)

16

What Cephalosporin is used in the treatment of MRSA?

Maxipime

17

Cephalosporins affect _____ bacteria, NOT _____

aerobic
anaerobic

18

What medication is good for the treatment of dental infections?

penicillin

19

What medication is effective STRICTLY fro Anaerobic bacteria?

Nitroimadazoles

20

What nitroimadazole is used widely in dentistry?

Flagyl

21

We should avoid giving out ______ when a patient is on Flagyl?

alcohol mouthrinses

22

What broad spectrum medication inhibits DNA replication?

Quinolones

23

What are 2 Quinolones used as outpatient antibiotics?

Lipro
Levaquin

24

What medication is given to patients who are allergic to penicillin?

Z-pack (erythromycin)

25

What medications are bacteriostatic and similar to erythromycin?

Macrolides

26

Name 2 types of Macrolides?

Zirhromax
Biaxin

27

What Macrolide is used in the treatment of Periodontal Disease?

Zithromax

28

What medication inhibits the production and secretion of collagenase by the PMN's

Tetracyclines

29

What medication is indicated for CHRONIC periodontal disease?

Doxycycline (20mg) * Periostat *

30

What is the name of the topical doxycycline?

Atridox

31

Why is doxycycline so good in the treatment of Periodontal Disease?

has a high affinity for gingival crevicular fluid

32

Kids age ______ and under shouldn't take tetracycline?

8

33

What affect does Demerol have when given to kids?

excitability
(reverse side effect)

34

Analgesia means?

pain reduction/relief

35

Is pressure still felt with analgesia?

yes

36

Anesthesia means?

Lack of sensation (L/A)

37

______ usually accompanies anesthesia?

Analgesia

38

Stage 1 = _________
The patient ______ conscious during this stage?

Analgesia
Is

39

What terminates stage 1?

Loss of consciousness

40

What medication used in dentistry maintains stage 1?

Nitrous

41

Stage 2 = _______/________
This stage initiates _____ but can have involuntary movements?

delirium/excitement
unconsciousness

42

Stage 3 = ________ ________

surgical anesthesia

43

Stage 4 = _________ ______

respiratory paralysis

44

General Anesthesia is ______ lack of awareness?

total

45

Most drugs work on what part of the brain?

cerebral cortex

46

Local anesthesia works by blocking nerve impulses at _____ _______ by blocking _____ ______?

cellular level
sodium channels

47

What is the most common form of sedation?

IV

48

What are 2 common agents used in the induction phase of general anesthesia?

Pentothal
Propofol

49

What paralytic drug is used when patients get intubated or are very combative?

Succinylcholine

50

What is the most common type of psychosis?

Schizophrenia

51

How did "older" typical antipsychotics work?

blocked dopamine receptor sites

52

Name 1 "older" antipsychotic drug?

Thorazine

53

What atypical antipsychotic is used in the 1st line of therapy for Schizo/Bipolar patients?

Risperdal

54

Name 2 common atypical antipsychotics?

Abilify
Clozaril

55

What are 2 common side effects of antipsychotic medications?

Parkinson movements
Tardive Dyskinesia

56

Anticholinergics produce symptoms of ______, _______ and _______ dentally?

xerostomia
root caries
oral candidiasis

57

Depression Diagnosis is based on?

5 symptoms or more...every day.... for 2 wks

58

What are 3 classes of anti-depressants?

MAOI's
TCA's
SSRI's

59

MAO inhibitors inhibit ______ _____ so it wont break down catecholamines?

Monoamine Oxidase

60

What is the most potent antidepressant?

MAOI's

61

Name 2 common MAO inhibitors?

Nardil
Marplan

62

What antidepressant inhibits the re-uptake of NE/Serotonin?

TCA

63

What dental condition do TCA's help relieve?

Nocturnal bruxism

64

What are 2 commonly used TCA's?

Elavil
Tofranil

65

TCA's have been replaced by?

SSRI

66

What antidepressant inhibits ONLY serotonin re-uptake?

SSRI

67

What was the prototype SSRI?

Prozac

68

What are 3 commonly prescribed SSRI's?

Paxil
Zoloft
Wellbutrin

69

ADHD is due to increased release of ____ and ______?

NE
Dopamine

70

What is the GOLD STANDARD mood stabilizer?

Lithium

71

What is an example of a Somatoform Disorder?

Anorexia

72

What type of drug is widely prescribed for anxiety?

Benzodiazepines

73

Can we use L/A with epi if a patient is on Benzodiazepines?

yes

74

What is the prototype Benzodiazepine?

Valium

75

Which Benzodiazepine has an antagonist? What is the name of the antagonist?

Versed
Romazicon

76

Valium _________ anesthesia while Versed is used in _______ sedation?

induces
preoperative

77

Name 3 oral Benzodiazepines?

Valium
Xanax
Librium

78

What is the Benzodiazepine used as a date rape drug?

Rohypnol "roofies"

79

Ambien and Lunesta are what type of drug? What class?

Benzo-like (used for insomnia)
Class IV- Rx needed

80

Name 3 Barbiturates used to induce anesthesia?

Pentholal
Pentobarbital
Phenobarbital

81

What sedative/hypnotic did Michael Jackson die of?

Propofol

82

Propofol has a ______ induction time and a ______ duration?

rapid (40sec)
short (5-10min)

83

What Non-Bartbiturate did Anna Nicole Smith OD on?

Noctec

84

Noctec has a _____ onset time and a _______ duration?

long (30-60min)
long (4-6hr)

85

What Non-Barbiturate sedative/hypnotic is safer because it has an antagonist? What is the name of the antagonist?

Miltown
Narcan/Maxicon