Module 3 (part of test 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 3 (part of test 2) Deck (75):
1

Infective endocarditis was FIRST referred to as?

Bacterial Endocarditis

2

What are 3 causative agents in Infective Endocarditis?

Strep
Staph
Candida

3

What are the 2 types of VALVES IE affects?

NVE- natural valve endocarditis
PVE- prosthetic valve endocarditis

4

Nosocomial means?

infection acquired at hospital

5

80-90% of IE cases come from what 2 sources?

Strep
Staph

6

What bacteria (found in normal flora of mouth and GI) cause IE?

Streptococci Viridans
(Alpha-hemolytic Streptococci)

7

What is the MOST common cause of community acquired NVE?

Strep

8

What is the MOST common bacteria (not found in normal flora) and common in IV-drug users that causes IE?

Staph

9

25-30% of IE cases are caused by WHAT underlying cause?

Mitral Valve Prolapse

10

IV drug users have a ___% risk of getting IE within 2yrs of drug use?

30

11

What is wrong in the valve and leaflets in Mitral Valve Stenosis?

Valve is Narrowing, hardening, thickening
Leaflets get stiff/rigid

12

A murmur is a audible sound heard due to _______

TURBULENT blood flow

13

Mitral Valve Prolapse is seen as a _____ of blood into the ______during contraction?

back flow
(L) atrium

14

What are the 2 causes of Rheumatic Heart Disease?

Rheumatic Fever
Strep Pharyngitis

15

What symptom stands out in Rheumatic Fever (or is a pathognomonic)?

Skin Rash

16

_______lesions obstruct vessels?

embolic

17

What structures FEED the superficial muscle of the heart?

coronary arteries

18

Osler Nodes are seen in?

Strep origin IE

19

Osler Nodes are ________, _______, ________ nodules on the _____ and _____?

small
tender
subcutaneous
fingers
toes

20

A Staph Aureus IE can present with what on the soles and palms?

Janeway Lesions

21

Describe the size, and color of Janeway Lesions?

small
red
Macular (flat)

22

What causes Roth Spots, Splinter Hemorrhages, and clubbing of fingers?

immune complex vascularities

23

What percent of non-treated IE pts. will die?

100

24

What is the survival rate of someone who IS treated for IE?

10-70%

25

AVG. hospital stay for someone with IE is?

4-6 wks

26

Symptoms of IE usually present?

within 2wks

27

Regular Prophy causes a bacteremia how often?

<40%

28

Do we Pre-Med for use of LA into healthy tissue?

NO

29

You are ______times more likely to cause IE by yourself than by having dental work done?

1,000

30

The adult dose for pre-med with Amoxicillin is?
Kids dose?

2g
50 mg/kg body weight

31

Adult dose of Clindamycin?
Kids dose?

600 mg
20 mg/kg body weight

32

What medication has the same dose as Amoxicillin?

Cephalexin

33

Rheumatic Fever is a disease found in what age group?

under 20

34

Rheumatic Fever is caused by?

Beta-hemolytic group A strep

35

The cause of Rheumatic Fever is unknown but believed to be ______ related?

immune

36

The term for an abnormal heart murmur?

Carditis

37

What VALVE is affected most in Rheumatic Fever?

(L) Mitral

38

Rheumatic Fever can cause ________which usually affects the large joints?

Polyarthritis

39

A MACULE with diffuse redness, and elevated edges is called a?

Erythema Marginatum

40

Chorea is a ____ of involuntary muscles but NOT at _______?

twitching
night

41

What percentage of people with Rheumatic Fever have a damaged heart?

1-6%

42

What is the most common valve disease associated with Rheumatic Heart Disease?

Mitral Valve Stenosis

43

Heart murmurs can be of _____ or ______ origin?

physiologic
pathologic

44

A Pathologic murmur is due to?

underlying condition
(IE, prosthetic valve, etc.)

45

A Physiologic or _____ murmur deals with?

innocent/functional
VVV
(velocity, viscosity, volume)

46

Which murmur needs to Pre-Med? Pathologic or Physiologic?

Pathologic (may need to have a consult first)

47

Congenital Heart Disease is a ________ of the Great Arteries?

transposition

48

What are the Great Arteries?

Aorta
Pulmonary

49

The Aorta USUALLY exits what ventricle?

L

50

The Pulmonary Artery exits what ventricle in Congenital Heart Disease?

L

51

What is the Tx for CHD and when do pts. usually receive the Tx?

shunting
1st few wks of life

52

What is the most common defect of CHD?

Tetralogy of Fallot

53

What is another name for Tetralogy of Fallot?

Blue Baby Syndrome

54

Tetralogy of Fallot results in ________hypertrophy?

R ventricular

55

Do we Pre-Med for Tetralogy?

YES

56

The _______ _________ connects the pulmonary artery and the aorta during fetal development?

ductus arteriosus

57

If an adult has Ductus Arteriosus what happens?

blood from aorta partially empties back into the pulmonary artery and back into the lungs
Not as much oxygen gets to the body parts

58

Do we Pre-Med for Ductus Arteriosus?

Yes- if it wasn't fixed
Consult- to find out specifics

59

Do we Pre-Med for a Ventricular Septal Defect?

NO

60

An Atrial Septal Defect is due to?

fetal foramen ovale not closing

61

When do signs of an Atrial Septal Defect present?

around 40

62

Do we Pre-Med for Atrial Septal Defects?

NO

63

A narrowing of the Aorta is called?

Coarctation of Aorta

64

A narrowed aorta causes __________ hypertrophy?

L ventricular

65

Do we Pre-Med for a Coarctation of the Aorta?

Yes- if not repaired
No- if repaired

66

T/F
The Aortic Valve has 2 leaflets?

F- 3

67

What is the most common congenital abnormality?

Bicuspid Aortic Valve

68

Approximately ____% of prosthetic valve pts. experience problems within ____yrs?

60%
10

69

Do we Pre-Med for prosthetic valves?

YES

70

After _______we no longer have to pre-med for coronary artery bypass pts.?

6mo

71

When do we Pre-Med for a pt. with a pacemaker?

within 1st 6 mo of getting it
(after that we need a consult to see)

72

What is a disease with general vasculitis developing in early childhood with an unknown cause that has tissue sloughing as a major sign?

Kawasaki

73

Tissue sloughing in Kawasaki Disease is due to?

vasoconstriction

74

Do we Pre-Med for artificial joints/prosthetic implants?

up to dentist
(unless at high risk)

75

What classifies a prosthetic pt. as high risk?

type 1 diabetes
within 1st 2 yrs of getting it
malnourished
hemophililac