Module 2 (part of test 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 2 (part of test 1) Deck (73):
1

The autonomic nervous system controls _______ responses?

involuntary

2

What are the 2 divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

3

"Rest and relaxation" deals with what branch of the autonomic nervous system?

Parasympathetic

4

The Sympathetic division prepares the body for "________ or ________" responses?

fight
flight

5

What is the receptor that deals with the Sympathetic Division?

Adrenergic

6

What is the receptor that deals with the Parasympathetic Division?

Cholinergic

7

Which receptor has divisions and what are they?

Adrenergic
Alpha and Beta

8

ANS drugs are used in dentistry. What are two examples?

Anesthetic
Nitrous Oxide

9

What ANS drugs can cause Xerostomia by blocking acetylcholine receptors?

Anticholinergics

10

Anti-depressants and Anti-psychotics have effects _______ to ANS system?

similar

11

The somatic nervous system stimulates ______ responses?

voluntary (skeletal muscles)

12

The Sympathetic nervous system dilate pupils when activated...This dilation of pupils is called?

Mydriasis

13

What 3 things does a Synapse consist of?

presynapse
synaptic cleft
postsynapse

14

What is the term for a group of nerve cell bodies located outside the Central Nervous System?

Ganglia

15

What are the 4 parts of a Neuron?

Cell Body
Dendrite
Axon
Axon Terminal

16

What carries the signals between neurons/other cells?

A neurotransmitter

17

What are the 3 catecholamines of the Adrenergic response system?

Epi
Nor-epi
Dopamine

18

Catecholamines come from the _______ ______ and are put into the blood during sympathetic stimulation?

Adrenal Medulla

19

The Sympathetic Response has _______ receptors like Adrenaline?

Adrenergic

20

The Alpha Receptors of the Sympathetic Response are responsible for _______?

smooth muscle relaxing

21

What are the 2 divisions of the Beta-receptors of the Sympathetic response are?

Beta 1
Beta 2

22

__________ receptors of the sympathetic response are responsible for the heart muscle?

Beta 1

23

Beta 2 receptors of the sympathetic response are responsible for the _____

lungs

24

Cholinergic Receptors are found in the _______ response system?

parasympathetic

25

Cholinergic receptors of the parasympathetic response have _________ receptors on them?

acetylcholine

26

What receptors of the parasympathetic response are responsible for most side effects?

Muscarinic

27

Muscarinic receptors ________ Heart Rate?

decrease

28

What receptors have to do with muscular paralysis like in general anesthesia?

Nicotinic

29

What receptors are sensitive to Nor-epi and epi?

Alpha 1 Adrenergic (sympathetic)

30

Alpha 1 Adrenergic receptors have an excitability concept that_________vessels?

constrict

31

Due to the response of Beta-1 Adrenergic receptors the heart needs?

more Oxygen

32

Stimulation of the Beta 2 Adrenergic receptors causes smooth muscle _______ Vaso________ and Broncho_______?

relaxation
dilation
dilation

33

If someone is in Anaphylactic Shock what do we give them to dilate their bronchi?

epinephrine

34

What receptors of the parasympathetic are found in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands?

Muscarinic Cholinergic

35

Muscarinic receptors of the parasympathetic response cause smooth muscle ______ and _______ cardiac function and glandular secretions

contraction
slows

36

What does Sympathomimetic mean?

drug that mimics sympathetic nervous system

37

Another name for a sympathomimetic is?

Adrenergic Agonist

38

An agonist ________ something?

promotes

39

Another name for a Cholinergic Agonist is?

Parasympathomimetic

40

A sympathomimetic stimulates ________ nervous system?

sympathetic

41

The effects of a adrenergic agonist depends on?

Alpha and Beta adrenergic receptors

42

________ has a limited use as a vasoconstrictor in Local Anesthetic?

Limited

43

Epinephrine affects alpha adrenergic receptors and causes vaso________ which _______ B.P.

constriction
increases

44

Epinephrine affects beta-1 adrenergic receptors and causes an increase in the ______ and ______ of the heart?

strength
rate

45

Epinephrine affects beta-2 adrenergic receptors and causes ___________

bronchodilation

46

What drug is used in ophthalmology to cause Mydriasis?

Ephedrine

47

What is a common alpha adrenergic drug used as a nasal decongestant?

phenylephrine

48

What OTC drug is used to "cook" Meth?

Sudafed

49

Pseudoephedrine is a _____ and ______ _______ drug?

alpha
beta
adrenergic

50

What drug is a precursor of Nor-epi and epi?

dopamine

51

Dopamine is used primarily for shock and in what disease?

Parkinsons (lack of dopamine)

52

what was the first bronchodilator that affected both beta adrenergic receptors?

isoproterenol

53

what is the bronchodilator of choice now?

ALBUTEROL (ventolin brand name)
it doesn't react with beta 1 receptors (heart)

54

What are some side effects of adrenergic drugs?

CNS disturbances
heart arrhythmia
heart palpitations
hypotension

55

alpha blocking drugs cause non-selective ________ which decreases ______?

vasodilation
BP

56

alpha blocking drugs result in ____ and ______ _______?

tachycardia
orthostatic hypotension

57

Alpha receptors are found on the ________ and when stimulated by epi/nor-epi they ______

arteries
constrict

58

phenoxybenzamine/Dibenzyline is used to treat _______ syndrome and ______ in newborns

raynaud's
pulmonary hypertension

59

Raynauds syndrome is an ______ disease that is triggered by ________ which causes arterial ________

autoimmune
cold
vasoconstriction

60

Beta blocking generic drugs all end in _______ suffix?

olol

61

Beta Blockers block increased _______ broncho__________ and ______

heart rate
dilation
tachycardia

62

Which beta blocker isn't ok to use epinephrine Local Anesthetic on? Why?

Nadolol (Corgard)
because it is nonselective (affects beta 1 and 2 receptors)

63

Propranolol is a _____ beta blocker used to treat many diseases and can cause ________ as well?

non-selective
bronchoconstriction

64

What 2 beta blockers are beta 1 specific?

Metoprolol
Atenolol

65

Neuronal Blocking Drugs block _______ from the sympathetic neuron which causes decreased BP?

release of Nor-epi

66

What is a very strong Neuronal blocking drug used to treat hypertension?

Alpha-Methyldopa (Aldomet)

67

What drug has an antidepressant effect on the CNS by inhibiting alpha receptors in the medulla?

Clonidine (Catapres)

68

Clonidine is used to tx what?

ADHD
Alcohol/Opiate withdrawal
Anxiety/Bipolar

69

Newer neuronal blocking drugs are causing _______ in order to decrease BP

vasodilation

70

Cholinergic drugs either stimulate _______ receptors or bock ___________

muscarinic
acetylcholinesterase

71

What drug is synthetically made and mimics acetylcholine?

Choline Esters

72

Anticholinergic drugs can either _____ or _____ effect of Acetylcholine?

prolong
block

73

What drug is a prototype anticholinergic that decreases salivary flow and GI spasm which is good prior to dental surgery?

Atropine