Flashcards in Module 6 (part of test 3) Deck (72):
Diabetes Mellitus is due to a ______ or _____ of insulin?
Hyperglycemia is a ______ disease seen with an increase in vascular _____ and a loss of ______?
If you have HIGH blood glucose the pancreas releases what substance?
If you have HIGH blood glucose the liver does what?
If you have LOW blood glucose the pancreas releases?
If you have LOW blood glucose the liver does what?
breaks down glycogen
What is the etiology of type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes affects what age group?
less than 25
Type 1 diabetes is a result of an _______ reaction to the ______ cells of the pancreas?
Type 2 diabetes is due to insulin _______ or ______?
What types of medications are commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes?
_______ diabetes is a temporary type due to a glucose metabolism disorder?
How many people world wide have diabetes?
How many cases of diabetes are not diagnose in the U.S. alone?
What percent of Americans are obese?
What condition is 20 times greater in diabetics vs. non-diabetics?
Diabetes accounts for 40,000 ______ per year and 20,000 _______?
What is the most important stimulus for insulin secretion?
Hyperglycemia is also termed?
Someone who is experiencing __________ will have glucose in their urine?
hyperglycemia (high blood glucose)
Why does someone who is hyperglycemic LOOSE weight?
body shifts to fat metabolism for energy because glucose can't be used
Fat metabolism produces ______ which makes the body go into a state of ________ _________?
A patient with type 1 diabetes should have a _______ appointment and we need to have _____ ___ available?
Where are the adrenal glands located?
superior to both kidneys
Endocrine glands are _______ glands that secrete hormones into the _________?
What 2 structures do adrenal glands contain?
The adrenal medulla stimulates?
Sympathetic Nervous System
The adrenal medulla secretes _________ into the blood?
(epi and nor-epi)
The adrenal cortex secretes?
What are the 3 steroids that the adrenal cortex secretes?
What is the PRIMARY glucocorticoid?
Cortisol generates the metabolism of what 3 things?
Cortisol inhibits _____ and increases _____ levels in the blood?
Cortisol is responsible for maintaining _______ during stressful times?
We can administer glucocorticoids to a patient with _____ ______ to decrease the inflammation of the joints?
How much cortisol is secreted in a 24 hour period?
You can reduce the release of cortisol by using what common dental/medical drugs?
What kind of patients will have long term use of glucocorticoids?
What are 3 common DENTAL uses of glucocorticoids?
post surgery pain reduction
What is the PRIMARY Mineralcorticoid?
Aldosterone is essential for ______ and ____ balance?
What disease is characterized by a decrease in both mineralcorticoids and glucocorticoids?
Addison's is most likely and _______ disorder but may be a result of a ___ or _____ as well?
Due to a reduced cortisol level in Addison's disease the tissues may present with abnormal ________?
A lack of cortisol _____ metabolism?
Low Aldosterone causes an inability to _______ sodium and _____ potassium. This causes the person to have ______?
hypotension (decreased blood volume)
What is the biggest cause of Adrenal Gland Insufficiency?
MD prescribes too much cortisol
What type of adrenal gland insufficiency is most common and results from exogenous use of corticosteroids?
Secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiency
What is the most common cause of Hyperadrenalism?
Cushings is characterized by an increase in ______
Cushings syndrome is seen clinically as having a _____ face and having weight _____?
Does a patient have to do anything different for routine vs. surgical dental work if they are taking corticosteroids?
No for routine
Double dose for surgical work
A patient who has hyperadrenalism is at an increased risk for what 2 conditions?
The thyroid gland sits ______ to the thyroid cartilage?
What percent of T3 is produced from T4?
The thyroid gland secretes _______?
The thyroid gland increases the rate that carbs are burned which therefore increases _____ ____ and produces ______?
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and development of?
What condition accounts for 75% of all neck swellings?
What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?
Graves Disease inhibits what action?
TSH from binding to receptors
Graves Disease may be a _______ one?
What is the term used to describe an increased level of thyroid hormones in the blood?
Graves disease can be seen clinically as a ______ of the eyes which is termed _______?
What do we need to do PRIOR to dental treatment for a patient who has uncontrolled hyperthyroidism?
What do we need to do PRIOR to dental treatment for someone who has controlled hyperthyroidism?
Limit epinephrine in LA
What is the disease of Primary Hypothryroidism?
Secondary Hypothyroidism is due to a failure of the _____ gland to secrete ____ to stimulate the thyroid?
Hypothyroidism may be _____ or ______
What is the definition of Myxedema?
Accumulation of intracellular and extracellular fluid
What is a congenital hypothyroid problem that presents commonly as dwarfism?