Module 6 (part of test 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 6 (part of test 3) Deck (72):
1

Diabetes Mellitus is due to a ______ or _____ of insulin?

decrease
lack

2

Hyperglycemia is a ______ disease seen with an increase in vascular _____ and a loss of ______?

Microvascular
Thickness
Elasticity

3

If you have HIGH blood glucose the pancreas releases what substance?

insulin

4

If you have HIGH blood glucose the liver does what?

produces glycogen

5

If you have LOW blood glucose the pancreas releases?

Glucagon

6

If you have LOW blood glucose the liver does what?

breaks down glycogen

7

What is the etiology of type 1 diabetes?

Idiopathic (unknown)

8

Type 1 diabetes affects what age group?

less than 25

9

Type 1 diabetes is a result of an _______ reaction to the ______ cells of the pancreas?

autoimmune
beta

10

Type 2 diabetes is due to insulin _______ or ______?

resistance
production

11

What types of medications are commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes?

oral hypoglycemics

12

_______ diabetes is a temporary type due to a glucose metabolism disorder?

gestational

13

How many people world wide have diabetes?

240 mil

14

How many cases of diabetes are not diagnose in the U.S. alone?

6 mil

15

What percent of Americans are obese?

20

16

What condition is 20 times greater in diabetics vs. non-diabetics?

blindness

17

Diabetes accounts for 40,000 ______ per year and 20,000 _______?

deaths
amputation

18

What is the most important stimulus for insulin secretion?

glucose

19

Hyperglycemia is also termed?

Metabolic Ketoacidosis

20

Someone who is experiencing __________ will have glucose in their urine?

hyperglycemia (high blood glucose)

21

Why does someone who is hyperglycemic LOOSE weight?

body shifts to fat metabolism for energy because glucose can't be used

22

Fat metabolism produces ______ which makes the body go into a state of ________ _________?

Ketones
Metabolic Acidosis

23

A patient with type 1 diabetes should have a _______ appointment and we need to have _____ ___ available?

morning
glucose tablets

24

Where are the adrenal glands located?

superior to both kidneys

25

Endocrine glands are _______ glands that secrete hormones into the _________?

ductless
blood

26

What 2 structures do adrenal glands contain?

outer cortex
inner medula

27

The adrenal medulla stimulates?

Sympathetic Nervous System

28

The adrenal medulla secretes _________ into the blood?

catecholamines
(epi and nor-epi)

29

The adrenal cortex secretes?

steroids

30

What are the 3 steroids that the adrenal cortex secretes?

Glucocorticoids
Mineralcorticoids
Gonadocorticoids

31

What is the PRIMARY glucocorticoid?

Cortisol

32

Cortisol generates the metabolism of what 3 things?

Carbs
Fats
Protein

33

Cortisol inhibits _____ and increases _____ levels in the blood?

inflammation
glucose

34

Cortisol is responsible for maintaining _______ during stressful times?

homeostasis

35

We can administer glucocorticoids to a patient with _____ ______ to decrease the inflammation of the joints?

rheumatoid arthritis

36

How much cortisol is secreted in a 24 hour period?

20 mg

37

You can reduce the release of cortisol by using what common dental/medical drugs?

Morphine
Valium
Local Anesthetic
Nitrous

38

What kind of patients will have long term use of glucocorticoids?

immunocompromised

39

What are 3 common DENTAL uses of glucocorticoids?

post surgery pain reduction
relieve edema
relieve trismus

40

What is the PRIMARY Mineralcorticoid?

Aldosterone

41

Aldosterone is essential for ______ and ____ balance?

sodium
potassium
(B/P)

42

What disease is characterized by a decrease in both mineralcorticoids and glucocorticoids?

Addison's

43

Addison's is most likely and _______ disorder but may be a result of a ___ or _____ as well?

autoimmune
infection
malignancy

44

Due to a reduced cortisol level in Addison's disease the tissues may present with abnormal ________?

pigmentation

45

A lack of cortisol _____ metabolism?

decreases

46

Low Aldosterone causes an inability to _______ sodium and _____ potassium. This causes the person to have ______?

conserve
eliminate
hypotension (decreased blood volume)

47

What is the biggest cause of Adrenal Gland Insufficiency?

MD prescribes too much cortisol

48

What type of adrenal gland insufficiency is most common and results from exogenous use of corticosteroids?

Secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiency

49

What is the most common cause of Hyperadrenalism?

Cushings

50

Cushings is characterized by an increase in ______

cortisol

51

Cushings syndrome is seen clinically as having a _____ face and having weight _____?

round/moon
gain

52

Does a patient have to do anything different for routine vs. surgical dental work if they are taking corticosteroids?

No for routine
Double dose for surgical work

53

A patient who has hyperadrenalism is at an increased risk for what 2 conditions?

hypertension
oseoporosis

54

The thyroid gland sits ______ to the thyroid cartilage?

inferior

55

What percent of T3 is produced from T4?

87

56

The thyroid gland secretes _______?

T4

57

The thyroid gland increases the rate that carbs are burned which therefore increases _____ ____ and produces ______?

body temp
energy

58

Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and development of?

tissues

59

What condition accounts for 75% of all neck swellings?

Goiter

60

What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?

Graves Disease

61

Graves Disease inhibits what action?

TSH from binding to receptors

62

Graves Disease may be a _______ one?

cyclic

63

What is the term used to describe an increased level of thyroid hormones in the blood?

Thyrotoxicosis

64

Graves disease can be seen clinically as a ______ of the eyes which is termed _______?

bulging
Exopthalmos

65

What do we need to do PRIOR to dental treatment for a patient who has uncontrolled hyperthyroidism?

MD consult

66

What do we need to do PRIOR to dental treatment for someone who has controlled hyperthyroidism?

Limit epinephrine in LA

67

What is the disease of Primary Hypothryroidism?

Hashimoto

68

Secondary Hypothyroidism is due to a failure of the _____ gland to secrete ____ to stimulate the thyroid?

pituitary
TSH

69

Hypothyroidism may be _____ or ______

congenital
acquired

70

What is the definition of Myxedema?

Accumulation of intracellular and extracellular fluid

71

What is a congenital hypothyroid problem that presents commonly as dwarfism?

Cretinism

72

What 3 medications should we avoid with hypothyroid patients?

CNS depressants
Sedatives
Narcotics