Module 1 - Topic 1-2: Cell Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 1 - Topic 1-2: Cell Structure Deck (91):
1

Cytology

Study of cells

2

Histology

Study of tissue

3

Human structure

Atoms- molecules- cells- tissues- organs- system- the organism

4

Homeostasis

State of balance within the body

5

Homeostasis of body fluids

Separation of the fluid compartment
Compositions of the fluid change as substances move between compartment

6

Intercellular fluid

Between cells

7

Intracellular fluid

Within cells

8

Extracellular fluid

Outside cells

9

Negative feedback

Response is generated in order to switch off or reduce the source of a given stimulus

10

Positive feedback

Intensify or increase the level of stimulus

11

Epithelial tissue

Skin and Tract lining, outside body

12

Connective tissue

Bone, cartilage and blood

13

Nervous tissue

Variety of nerves

14

Muscular tissue

Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle

15

Polar head of phospholipid

Hydrophilic

16

Fatty acid tails of phospholipid

Hydrophobic

17

Cell membrane - function

Separates/ protects the inside of the cell from external wnvironment
- detects external environmental changes
- cell to cell communication
- temp and pressure changes

18

Lipid bilayer - function

Forms barrier to entry or exit of polar substances

19

Lipid bilayer - makeup

Two back to back layers of 3 types of lipid molecules
- double row of phospholipid molecules
- scattered cholesterol and glycolipid molecules

20

Phospholipids

75% of cell membrane lipids
- each molecule is amphipathic (polar and nonpolar)

21

Lipid bilayer - permability

Permeable to water, non polar molecules
Iimpermeable to polar and charged molecules, ions

22

Transmembrane proteins

Specific channels
- used for small and medium polar molecules

23

Macromolecules

- large proteins
- unable to pass through cell membrane so uses other transport

24

Cholesterol

Allows lipid bilayer to be malleable
Prevent rigidness
Maintains cell fluidity

25

Transporter proteins

Bonds specific substances to transport through lipid bilayer

26

Receptor proteins

Cellular recognition site
Bonds to signalling molecule

27

Cell identity marker

Allows cell to recognise other similar cells

28

Linker proteins

Anchors cells together
Allows cell movement
Holds cell shape

29

Enzyme

Catalysed chemical reactions

30

Mediated transport

Moves material with help of transport protein

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Non mediated protein

Doesn't use transport Protein

32

Passive transport

Moves substances down concentration gradient

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Active transport

Uses energy atp to drive substances against concentration gradient

34

Vesicular transport

Moves large materials across membrane in small vesicles

35

Endocytosis

Moves into cell

36

Exocytosis

Moves out of cell

37

Simple tissue

Cells are all the same structure

38

Compound tissue

Mixture of cells with different functions

39

Living organism criteria

Metabolism
Responsiveness
Movement
Growth
Differentiation
Reproduction

40

Inner region of membrane

Highly insoluble as it is made up of hydrophobic tails

41

Integral membrane proteins

Proteins inserted between phospholipid molecules

42

Peripheral proteins

Attached to either inner or outer surface

43

Glycoproteins and glycolipids

Proteins and phospholipids that have carb molecules attached to them
Function as cell signalling and cell receptors

44

Channel proteins

Allows specific substances to move through pores

45

Signal transduction

Stimulation of plasma membrane protein by external stimulus

46

Passive transport

Diffusion through bilayer
Diffusion through channel
Facilitated diffusion

47

Actin Cortex

Dense network of protein below surface of plasma
Linked to plasma membrane via integral proteins

48

Actin

Property of polymerising within the cell to produce supportive cytoskeleton

49

Intermediate filaments

Tough, rope like fibrous proteins

50

Microtubules

Composed of Tubulin subunits

51

Microfilament

Thin

52

Filament location

Actin microfilaments - plasma membrane
Microtubules - central portion of cell
Intermediate filament- central portion of cell

53

Cytoskeleton

Constantly changes to meet requirements of cell
Facilitates transport of cellular component by interacting with motor proteins

54

Microvilli

Small finger like projections that increase surface area
Supported by actin microfilaments and are found on cells that absorb

55

Cilia

Motile structures
Present in variety of cells
Transport substances along surfaces of cells

56

Flagella

Found in male sperm
Whipping movements allow it to swim towards desired destination

57

Cytoplasm

Fluid filled space bound by membrane
Composed of intracellular fluid

58

Chromatin

Equal amounts of DNA and bead like proteins called histones

59

Nuclear envelope

Contain specialised pores to allow molecules to enter and leave nucleus

60

Nucleoli

Dark spherical bodies that synthesise the rna and proteins needed to form ribosomal subunits

61

Mitochondria

Contain own DNA
Able to replicate independently of the cell
Replicate through binary fission

62

Mitochondria - function

Energy production via synthesis of atp
Calcium storage and release

63

Synthesis of atp - ways

Krebs cycle
Electron transport chain

64

Ribosomes

Proteins combined with RNA
Two globular structures called subunits

65

Ribosome function

Reads coded message for protein in messenger rna and translate into chain of amino acids

66

Polypeptide

Conforms to the shape of protein

67

Membrane bound ribosomes

Synthesise proteins for incorporation into cellular membrane

68

Endoplasmic reticulum

Network of membrane that continuous with the nuclear envelope

69

Rough ER

Ribosomes bound to the ER

70

Smooth ER

Without ribosomes

71

Protein synthesis on Rough ER

Secreted from cells

72

Smooth ER function

Production of large amounts of cholesterol and steroids
Lipid metabolism
Detoxification of drugs, toxins and alcohol
Breakdown of stored glycogen

73

Golgi Appartus

Final stop of secreted proteins
Modifies proteins, like addition of carbs, then repackaged prior to secretion

74

Glycosylation

Adding sugar molecules to form glycoproteins

75

Golgi appartus structure

Stack of membrane bounded cisternqe
Different enzymes perform varies activies in the Golgi

76

Transition vesicles

Pinch off from surface carrying
Integral membrane proteins
Soluble proteins
Processing enzymes

77

Outbound pathway

Transition vesicles move toward the cis Golgi on microtubules
Coat protein is removed and vesicles fuse together
Sugars are added
Proteins move from cis to medial to trans Golgi
Vesicles pinch off and carry completed products

78

Inbound pathway

Using signals, the Golgi separates the products from processing enzymes and returns the enzymes back
Inbound vesicles are coated in coat protein

79

V snares

On vesicle surface

80

T snares

On surface of target membrane

81

V and t snares

Bind to each other die to complementary structures

82

Lysomes - function

Cell demolition
- digest particles taken into cell by endocytosis
Degrading and recycling worn out organelle
Break down stores glycogen, non useful tissue, bone
Secretory function - release content by exocytosis

83

Perixisomes - function

Breakdown fatty acids
Breakdown harmful chemicals
Synthesis of cholesterol

84

Oxidase function

Detoxify harmful substances
Neutralise and convert dangerous free radicals

85

Catalase

Convert harmful hydrogen peroxide made from oxidase to water

86

Extracellular matrix

Substance between cells
All cells in solid tissue are surrounded by ecm
Composed of proteins, complex chains of sugar

87

ECM function

Extracellular communication
Stable positioning of cells in tissue through adhesion
Repositioning of cells by cell migration

88

ECM properties

Tensile strength to tendons
Compressive strength to cartilage
Hydraulic protection for many cells
Elasticity to blood vessel walls

89

Main forms of ECM

Connective tissue
Basement membrane
Pericellular matrix

90

Cell Adhesion molecules

Located at cell surface and join cells to cells, cells to ECM and ECM to cell cytoskeleton

91

CAM function

Adhesion of cells to provide organised tissue structure
Transmission of extracellular cues and signals across membrane
Migration of cells through regulation of adhesions