Module 2 - Topic 1-2: Integumentary system Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Module 2 - Topic 1-2: Integumentary system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 2 - Topic 1-2: Integumentary system Deck (97):
1

Basic function of integumentary system

- physical and chemical barrier
- maintains body temp
- enables body to sense environment
- vitamin D synthesis

2

How blood recieves oxygen

by diffusion through the skin (1-2%)

3

integumentary makeup

many layers thick
specialised nerve endings

4

Epidermis

outer layer of squamous epithelium

5

Dermis

connective tissue, glands, blood and lymph vessels and nervous tissue

6

Hypodermis

below the dermis, adipose tissue and connective tissue

7

Keratinocytes

contains fibrous intermediate filaments protein (keratin) and waterproofs

8

Melanocytes

secretes pigment - melanin
- shields the DNA from UV rays
- close to blood vessels
- delivers melanin granules to kertainocytes

9

Langerhan's cells

for immune surveillance and present antigens to immune system

10

Stratum Corneum

outermost layer, dead, flattened sloughing cells

11

Stratum Lucidum

clear layer, mainly thick skin

12

Stratum Granulosom

granular layer, keratohyaline granules

13

Stratum spinosum

spiny layer, developed desomomes, melanin

14

Stratum Basale

innermost base, where the live cells, closest to the dermis

15

Eumelanin

dark, makes skin darker

16

Phaeomelanin

makes red hair

17

Carotene

yellow

18

Haemoglobin

reddish colour

19

Dermis

highly vascularised
- supplies nutrients and O2 to stratum basale
- involved in temperature regulation
- protects underlying tissues

20

Ceruminous Glands

modified apocrine glands
- secretes cerumen - wax

21

Mammary Glands

modified apocrine sweat glands
- secrete milk

22

Sebaceous glands

associated with hair follicles
- secrete sebum
- oil lubricates hair

23

Hair

composed of concentric rings of keratinised cells

24

Eumelanin

gives black brown and blonde colour

25

Lanugo

loses 2 months before birth

26

Vellus

fine, pale body hair

27

Terminal hair

scalp, eyebrow, lashes, axilla, pubis

28

Around hair follicles

nervous tissue
- microscopic muscle tissue
- contraction forces sebum out of hair follicles

29

Free nerve endings

pain and temp

30

merkel discs

light touch and pressure

31

Ruffini corpuscles

skin distortion and pressure

32

Meissner's corpuscles

light touch, texture

33

Pacinian Corpuscles

deep pressure, tickle and vibration

34

Hypodermis

consists of adipose tissue
storage depot for triglycerides
protects and insulates underlying skin

35

Human Skeleton

Compromised bone and cartilage
- provides support and protection
- assists movement
- calcium and phosphate storage
- blood cell production

36

Bone - qualities

strong and light but prone to wear and tear

37

Cartilage - qualities

more durable and flexible material

38

3 types of cartilage

hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage

39

Basic types of bones

long
short
flat
irregular
sesamoid

40

long bone

compact

41

short bone

spongy except surface

42

flat bone

plates of compact bone enclosing spongy bone

43

irregular bone

variable

44

sesamoid bone

developed in tendons or ligaments

45

ends of bone

epiphyses

46

shaft of bone

diaphysis

47

ara white fibrous membrane

periosteum

48

ticular cartilige

caps the end of bone

49

bone matrix

strong, hard, durable, tough material

50

Bone matrix composition

collagen type 1 fibres (strong, rope like protein fibres) and crystals (surrounding the collagen fibres)

51

Bone cells

Osteogenic
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts

52

Osteogenic cells

Stem cells, the young cells that develop into other specialised cells

53

Oestoblasts

Matrix synthesising cell
Bone growth
Outside of Bone matrix

54

Oestoclasts

Bone reabsorbing cell
Bone eaters
Outside of cell

55

Osteocytes

Mature bone cell
Monitors and maintains bone matrix
Inside bone

56

Bone tissue

Dynamic, always changing

57

Lacuna

Cavities which the oestocytes are in

58

Long bone - compact bone

Solid, dense bone
Basic unit of structure is osteons

59

Osteons

Ring circles of bone crystal

60

Long bone - spongy bone

Sponge like with spaces and trabeculae
No osteon
Usually ends of bone

61

Trabeculae

Bony struts surrounded by bone marrow

62

When trabeculae are formed

Formed after birth, formed in places that need added strength and to lessen force

63

Flat bone - structure

Compact bone
Spongy bone
Compact bone

64

Osteons- structure

Central cavity - arteries and veins
Lacuna - cavatites that hold osteocytes
Canliculi - allows nutrients from arteries to fuse to other osteocytes

65

Collagen fibres

Winded up bone
Tough fibres
Run in different directions in each layer of bone to provide strength

66

Thyroid gland

Secretes calcitonin
Inhibits osteoclasts activity
Decreases blood calcium levels

67

Parathyroid gland

4 small glands
Secretes parathyroid hormone
Stimulates osteocytes activity and bone degradation
Increases blood calcium level

68

Growth hormone

Secreted in parathyroid
Stimulates oestoblasts and osteoclasts

69

Sex hormones

Oestrogen and testosterone inhibits oestoclast activity
Stimulates osteoblasts activity

70

Epiphyseal plate

Cartilage growth plate
At 18 cartilage stops dividing to let in more bone and bone replaces it

71

Red bone marrow

Found in spongy bone
Site of blood cell production

72

Yellow marrow

Oily substance
Found in meduallary cavity of long bones (middle cavity)
Site of fat storage

73

Cartilage

Made of Chondrocytes (found in lacuna)
Matrix consisting of
- collagen fibres ( strength)
- elastin fibres (flexibility)
- chondrotin sulphate

74

Chondrotin sulphate

Chemical that attracts water
Causes cartilage to be stiff - filled with water

75

Hyaline cartilage

Most abundant but weakest
Rubbery
No blood vessels or nerves so repair is slow
Found in joints
Provides support, flexibility and reduces friction

76

Elastic cartilage

Networkof elastic fibres - maintains shape
Provides elasticity and shape

77

Fibrocartilage

Visible collagen fibres - causes rigidity and strength as well as support and flexibility
Absorbs shock, resists compression

78

Cranium

Skull

79

Mandible

Chin

80

Clavicle

Shoulder bones

81

Scapula

Bone inbetween shoulder and torso

82

Humerus

Top of arm

83

Sternum

Middle of chest

84

Ilium

Pelvic bones

85

Sacrum

Where spine mets pelvis

86

Carpals

Wrist

87

Metacarpals

Bottoms of fingers

88

Plalanges

Top of fingers

89

Radius

Outer bone of lower arm

90

Ulna

Inner bone of lower arm

91

Femur

Top of leg

92

Patella

Knee cap

93

Ishchium

Pubis bone

94

Fibula

Outer lower leg

95

Tibia

Inner lower leg

96

Tarsals

Ankle

97

Metatarsals

Bottom of foot Close to ankle