Module 5 - Topic 2B-3: The Digestive System and Renal System Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Module 5 - Topic 2B-3: The Digestive System and Renal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 5 - Topic 2B-3: The Digestive System and Renal System Deck (100):
1

Salivary Glands

secretes saliva

2

Parotid Glands

salivary glands
either side of mouth, infront of ears

3

Sublingual glands

under the tongue

4

Submandibular glands

under the lower jaw bone

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Buccal glands

small intrinsic glands scattered throughout mucosa of oral cavity

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Saliva

cleanses mouth
dissolves food chemicals
moistens food to aid swallowing
contains salivary amylase that initiates chemical digestion of starch

7

saliva makeup

IgA antibodies
lysozyme (bacterial enzyme)
defensins (antibiotic proteins)
cyanide compound that prevents growth and infection of harmful bacteris

8

Pancreas location

near start of small intestine

9

Pancreas - makeup

contains a mixture of exocrine and endocrine glandular tissue

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Exocrine portion of pancreas

contains acini that secrete pancreactic juice into a duct that goes to small intestine

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acini

small clusters of secretory cells

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Pancreatic juice

contains alkaline bicarbonate- rich mixture, specialised for digestion of proteins, sugars, lipids and nucleic acids
neutralises the acidic chyme entering the small intestine from stomach

13

Endocrine portion of pancreas

pancreatic islets
islets of Langerhans
secretes hormones directly into bloodstream

14

Alpha islet cells

secrete glucagon

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Beta islet cells

secretes insulin

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Delta islet cells

secrete somatostatin

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glucagon function

increase blood glucose levels by stimulating glucose release from liver

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Insulin function

lower blood glucose levels by enhancing membrane transport of glucose into tissue cells
influences protein and fat metabolism

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Insulin function after glucose enters cells

catalyses oxidation of glucose for ATP production
joins glucose molecules together to produce glycogen
converts glucose to fat

20

Liver

influences main different activities

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Liver - main functions

produces bile
metabolises lipids and other nutrients
stores glucose in form of glycogen

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Bile

acts as a detergent and assists digestion and absorption of fats

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Hepatocytes

liver cells that produce bile

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how bile gets to gallbladder

collected from liver by a network of ducts and drains into gallbladder

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Gallbladder

small green sac under the right lower surface of the liver

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gallbladder function

concentrates and stores bile

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cholecystokinin

intestinal hormone that is released when fatty chyme enters the small intestine from stomach
major stimuli for gallbladder contraction

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gallstones

crystals of pure cholesterol, formed when high concentrate of cholesterol

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bilirubin

main pigment of bile
waste product of heme

30

jaundice

caused by a build up of bilirubin in the blood

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Portal circulatory system - location

begins at capillaries of digestive organs and ends in portal vein

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Portal blood

contains substances absorbed by stomach and intestines
passed through the hepatic lobules

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Hepatic lobules

where nutrients and toxins are absorbed, excreted or converted

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portal hypertension

restriction of outflow through hepatic portal system

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liver lobules

tiny functional units in liver
shaped like a hexagonal wheel

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liver lobule makeup

central vein with sheets of hepacytes radiating outwards

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portal triad

at each point of hexagon
consists of arteriole, venule and bile duct

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sinusoids

leaky capillaries that blood from ateriole and venules passes through to get to central vein

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kupffer cells

star shaped macrophages that remove debris and worn out blood cells from blood

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sheets of hepatocytes in liver lobule - function

process blood borne nutrients
store fat soluble vitamins
detoxify blood
produce bile

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bile canaliculi

tiny canals that hepatocytes secrete bile

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Hepatitis

inflammation of liver

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HVA and HVE

transmitted by food or water contamination

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HVB and HVC

carried in infected blood or body fluids

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HVD

mutated virus that needs HVB to be infectious

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Non viral Hepatitis

result of drug toxicity, pesticide poisoning or wild mushroom poisoning

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cirrhosis

progressive chronic inflammation of liver as a result of chronic alcoholism

48

Urinary system - function

control the amount of water present in body and eliminate water soluble wastes

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human urinary system

recycles water and eliminates the need for constant drinking

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primary organ of urinary system

kidneys

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Kidney function

remove waste products from water and return water to rest of body
act as endocrine glands that secrete erythropoietin and renin
activates Vitamin D to assist bone formation
supply glucose to body during fasting

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Urine

contain waste products such as toxic metabolic water substances and salts

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major components of urinary system

ureters, urinary bladder and urethra

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Functions of urinary system

maintains salt, water and pH balance of blood and removes wastes

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renin

helps regulate blood pressure and kidney function

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Kidney - location

back of upper abdominal cavity

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Kidney - makeup

highly vascularised bean shaped protected by renal fascia, adipose layer and inner renal capsule
has 3 main regions, outer cortex, inner medulla and renal pelvis

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renal fascia

outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue

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renal capsule

thin, shiny, transparent membrane on surface of each kidney

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Outer cortex of kidney

light coloured
granular appearance
site of filtration

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Inner medulla

deep below cortex
dark reddish brown colour
contains renal pyramids
re absorption and secretion

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renal pyramids

cone shaped masses in inner medulla of kidney

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papilla

apex of renal pyramids

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Renal pelvis

central junction that papilla point towards
large funnel shaped collecting tube which is continuous with ureter leaving the kidney

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calyces

branching extensions of renal pelvis
collect urine which drains constantly from pyramids and empties into renal pelvis

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renal artery

enter each kidney carrying blood to be filtered

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Renal vein

leaves kidney, carries blood away

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Nephrons

tiny blood filtration units in kidney that carry out the processes of urine formation

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Nephron makeup

glomerulus
Bowmans capsule
Renal tubule

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Glomerulus

small pin head sized tuft of arterioles

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Bowmans capsule

cup like structure that holds glomerulus and allows fluid to pass from the blood into collecting tubules

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Renal Corpuscle

glomerulus and bowmans capsule

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Renal tubule

tiny collecting tube divided into 3 regions
Proximal convoluted tubule (near twisted)
loop of henle
Distal convoluted tubule (distant twisted)

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Fenestrations

small holes in the endothelium of the arterioles in the glomerulus
allow fluid and solutes to leak out of bloodstream

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Basement membrane

extracellular matrix of collagen fibres that underlie all epithelia
prevents large solutes from going any further

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Podocytes

epithelial cells that filter the fluid that comes through basement membrane
have tiny foot like projections called pedicels

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pedicels

foot like projections which press against basement membrane restricting the surface area for filtration and regulates amount of fluid being filtered

78

fluid that passes pedicels

contains only small molecules like salts
collected into bowmans capsule and carried down renal tubule

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Urine formation

involve 3 major processes
glomerular filtration
tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion

80

Glomerular filtration

begins in renal corpuscle
passive, non selective process where fluids and solutes are forced through membrane under hydrostatic pressure

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Tubular Reabsorption

proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs glucose, lactate and amino acids back into body

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Role of Loop of henle in selective reabsorption

since extracellular space becomes hypertonic , water moves by osmosis out of descending limb into extracellular space

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descending limb of loop of Henle

freely permeable to water
impermeable to solutes

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Ascending limb of loop of Henle

impermeable to water
cells lining the ascending limb have a pump that transports salt from urine back into extracellular space to the bloodstream

85

Further processing of filtrate

occurs in distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts

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distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts - permeability

have hormone dependent permeability to water

87

Aldosterone

secreted by adrenal glands
targets distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts and enhances Na+ and water reabsorption into body
reduces potassium ion concentrations in the blood

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Antidiuretic Hormone

released by posterior pituitary gland
increases the permeability of collecting ducts

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Tubular secretion - location

proximal convoluted tubules
cortical parts of collecting ducts
late regions of distal convoluted tubules

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Tubular secretion - function

disposal of unfiltered substances
elimination of undesirable substances or end products
ridding body of excessive potassium
controls blood pH

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Ureters

slender tubes that convey urine from kidneys into urinary bladder

92

renal calculi

kidney stones
block ureter and flow or urine

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Hydronephrosis

backflow of urine into kidneys
leads to renal failure

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urinary bladder

collapsible smooth muscular sac that temporarily stores urine

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interior of bladder

lined with protective mucosa
has openings to ureters and urethra

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trigone

smooth triangular region of bladder that has 3 openings

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bladder wall makeup

inner mucosa
middle thick smooth muscular layer
outer fibrous connective layer

98

Urethra

thin muscular tube
drains urine from bladder to outside

99

internal urethra sphincter

at bladder urethra junction
involuntary control
keeps urethra closed

100

external urethra sphincter

surrounds urethra and formed from skeletal muscle
voluntary control
voluntary constrictor of of urethra