Module 10 - Muscular system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 10 - Muscular system Deck (126):
1

Skeletal muscles cause movement of bones when they apply force to ____ and bones.

tendons

2

Muscle contractions that are extended for a period of time help maintain ______.

posture

3

Sphincters are ring-like bands of _____ muscle tissue.

smooth

4

A wave-like contraction of smooth muscle in the GI tract is called ______.

peristasis

5

Thermogenesis is a function of ____ muscle tissue.

skeletal

6

Multi-nucleated and striated are terms describing _____ muscle.

skeletal

7

Striated with one or two central nuclei describes the structure of ______ muscle.

cardiac

8

No visible striations and one central nucleus describes _____ muscle tissue.

smooth

9

The thin and thick filaments are formed primarily of _____ and _____ proteins, respectively.

actin (thin);
myosin (thick)

10

The unit of contraction in a skeletal muscle is called ______.

sarcomere

11

______ muscle tissue is under voluntary nervous system control.

skeletal

12

Branched muscle fibers with intercalated discs are found in _____ muscle tissue.

cardiac

13

Spindle-shaped muscle fibers are associated with _____ muscle tissue.

smooth

14

A fascicle is a bundle of ______.

muscle fibers (cells)

15

The ______ is the cell membrane covering a muscle cell.

sarcolemma

16

_____ is the name of the cytoplasm of the skeletal muscle cell.

sarcoplasm

17

Endomysium is composed of _____ connective tissue and surrounds the sarcolemma.

areolar

18

Perimysium is ______ connective tissue and surrounds a muscle fascicle.

dense irregular

19

The tube-like structures that run perpendicular to the myofibrils are _______.

T-tubules

20

The membranous sac filled with calcium is called the ______.

sarcoplasmic reticulum

21

An individual muscle cell is formed by many contractile elements called _______.

myofibrils

22

The sarcoplasmic reticulum from one sarcomere, a T tubule, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum from another sarcomere is collectively referred to as a ______.

triad

23

What myofilaments are parallel to each other and come into contact with each other during a muscle contraction?

thin and thick

24

A _____ disc / line separates one sarcomere from another.

Z

25

The neuromuscular junction includes the somatic motor neuron and a muscle ______.

fiber

26

_____ is the neurotransmitter released from the terminal processes of the somatic motor neurons.

Acetylcholine

27

The motor end plate contains nicotinic ______ receptors.

acetylcholine

28

What is the role of acetylcholinerase?

It breaks down acetylcholine

29

The ______ is the portion of a motor neuron that carries a signal from the spinal cord to the neuromuscular junction.

axon

30

The binding of acetylcholine to receptors on the motor end plate opens sodium ______.

channels

31

____ tubules allow for the action potential to penetrate deep into the muscle cell.

Transverse (T)

32

_____ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum when the action potential activates the muscle cell.

calcium

33

Because of their role in the contraction cycle, troponin and tropomyosin are _____ proteins.

regulatory

34

_____ filaments have both calcium and myosin binding sites.

Thin

35

_____ is hydrolyzed during the contraction cycle.

ATP

36

Myosin detached from actin when _____ binds to the myosin head.

ATP

37

Tropomyosin covers the binding sites for _____ when calcium is absent.

myosin

38

The sarcomere shortens when thin and ____ filaments slide past each other.

thick

39

_____ is released from the synaptic vesicle at a neuromuscular junction.

Acetylcholine

40

_____ is the largest structural protein. It connects the Z disc to the M line and contributes to a sarcomere's elasticity.

Titin

41

A motor unit consists of a somatic motor neuron and all of the ______ it innervates.

muscle fibers

42

Aerobic oxidation of glucose and anaerobic fermentation of glucose both provide ____ for a muscle contraction.

ATP

43

What muscle fiber type is most consistently used while running a marathon?

slow, oxidative

44

70-80% of the energy used by muscle is lost as _____.

heat

45

Glycogen depletion, decreased ATP, and increased lactic acid contribute to muscle _____.

fatigue

46

Muscles that work together are ______.

agonists

47

Muscles that oppose each other are ______.

antagonists

48

The attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone is called its _____.

origin

49

The attachment of a muscle to the bone it moves (usually distal) is called its ______.

insertion

50

The gluteus maximus is named because of its ______.

size

51

The tibialis anterior is named because of its ______.

location

52

What are the functions of muscular tissue?

Producing body movements
Stabilizing body positions
Storing and moving substances in the body
Generating heat

53

What are the properties of muscular tissue?

Electrical excitability
Contractility
Extensibility
Elasticity

54

_____ is a dense sheet or broad band of irregular connective tissue that lines the body wall and limbs and supports and surrounds muscles and other organs of the body.

Fascia

55

_____ is the outer layer, encircling the entire muscle. It consists of dense irregular tissue.

Epimysium

56

______ is dense irregular tissue that surrounds groups of 10 to 100 or more muscle fibers, separating them into bundles called fascicles.

Perimysium

57

______ penetrates the interior of each fascicle and separates individual muscle fibers from one another.

Endomysium

58

The inability of a muscle to maintain force of contraction after prolonged activity is called _______.

muscle fatigue

59

A _____ consists of a somatic motor neuron plus all of the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates.

motor neuron

60

In an _____ contraction, tension remains constant as muscle length decreases or increases.

isotonic

61

In an ______ contraction, tension increases greatly without change in muscle length.

isometric

62

DIRECTION: Parallel to the midline

Rectus

63

DIRECTION: Perpendicular to the midline

Transverse

64

DIRECTION: Diagonal to the midline

Oblique

65

SIZE: largest

maximus

66

SIZE: smallest

minimus

67

SIZE: long

longus

68

SIZE: short

brevis

69

SIZE: widest

latissimus

70

SIZE: longest

longissimus

71

SIZE: large

magnus

72

SIZE: larger

major

73

SIZE: smaller

minor

74

SIZE: huge

vastus

75

SHAPE: triangular

deltoid

76

SHAPE: trapezoid

trapezius

77

SHAPE: saw-toothed

serratus

78

SHAPE: diamond-shaped

rhomboid

79

SHAPE: circular

orbicularis

80

SHAPE: comblike

pectinate

81

SHAPE: pear-shaped

piriformis

82

SHAPE: flat

platys

83

SHAPE: square, four-sided

quadratus

84

SHAPE: slender

gracillus

85

ACTION: decreases joint angle

flexor

86

ACTION: increases joint angle

extensor

87

ACTION: moves bone away from midline

abductor

88

ACTION: moves bone closer to midline

adductor

89

ACTION: raises or elevated body part

levator

90

ACTION: lowers or depresses body part

depressor

91

ACTION: turns palm anteriorly

supinator

92

ACTION: turns palm posteriorly

pronator

93

ACTION: decreases size of an opening

sphincter

94

ACTION: makes body part rigid

tensor

95

ACTION: rotates bone around longitudinal axis

rotator

96

NUMBER OF ORIGINS: 2

biceps

97

NUMBER OF ORIGINS: 3

triceps

98

NUMBER OF ORIGINS: 4

quadriceps

99

What are the 3 types of muscle tissues?

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

100

extraocular action, origin, and insertion

action: eye movement
origin: skull
insertion: eyeball

101

masseter action, origin, and insertion

action: closes the mouth
origin: maxilla, zygomatic arch
insertion: mandible

102

sternocleidomastoid action, origin, and insertion

action: tilt head toward shoulder
origin: clavicle, sternum
insertion: temporal bone (mastoid process)

103

trapezius action, origin, and insertion

action: move scapula
origin: occipital bone, cervical spine
insertion: clavicle, scapula

104

pectoralis major action, origin, and insertion

action: adduct arm
origin: clavicle, upper ribs
insertion: humerus

105

latissimus dorsi action, origin, and insertion

action: pulls arm inferiorly and posteriorly
origin: thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, iliac of pelvis
insertion: humerus

106

deltoid action, origin, and insertion

action: abduct, flex, medially rotate upper arm
origin: clavicle, scapula
insertion: humerus

107

biceps brachii action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes forearm at elbow
origin: scapula
insertion: radius

108

triceps brachii action, origin, and insertion

action: extends forearm at elbow
origin: scapula, humerus
insertion: ulna (olecranon process)

109

brachialis action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes forearm at elbow
origin: humerus
insertion: ulna

110

brachioradialis action, origin, and insertion

action: supinates forearm
origin: humerus
insertion: radius

111

diaphragm action, origin, and insertion

action: breathing
origin: ribs 7-12, sternum, lumbar vertebrae
insertion: central tendon

112

external and internal intercostals action, origin, and insertion

action: changes volume of chest in breathing
origin: lower surface of ribs
insertion: upper surface of ribs

113

rectus abdominis action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen
origin: pubic bone of pelvis
insertion: ribs 5-7, sternum

114

external oblique action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen
origin: ribs 5-12
insertion: iliac crest of pelvis, linea alba

115

internal oblique action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen
origin: iliac crest of pelvis
insertion: ribs 7-10, linea alba

116

transversus abdominis action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen
origin: iliac crest of pelvis, ribs 5-10
insertion: rib 12, L1-L4

117

gluteus maximus action, origin, and insertion

action: extension of thigh, lateral rotation of thigh
origin: iliac crest of pelvis, sacrum, coccyx
insertion: femur

118

What are the 3 compartments of the thigh?

anterior
posterior
medial

119

______ compartment of the thigh contains femur + quadriceps group.

Anterior

120

_____ compartment of the thigh contains hamstring group.

Posterior

121

What are the muscles that make up the quadriceps group?

rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus intermedius
vastus medialis

122

quadriceps group action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes thigh, extends leg
origin: iliac spine of pelvis, femur
insertion: quadriceps tendon --> patella --> patellar ligament --> tibia

123

What are the muscles that make up the hamstring group?

biceps femoris
semitendinosus
semimembranosus

124

hamstring group action, origin, and insertion

action: extends thigh, flexes leg
origin: ischial tuberosity of pelvis
insertion: fibula, tibia

125

gastrocnemius action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes foot
origin: femur
insertion: calcaneous (heel) via calcaneal tendon

126

soleus action, origin, and insertion

action: flexes foot
origin: fibula, tibia
insertion: calcaneous (heel) via calcaneal tendon