Flashcards in Module 4 Deck (269):
The ____ is the basic unit of all living things.
_______ _____ are complex cells with a membrane bound nucleus and subcellular structures (organelles).
All fungi, plant, and animals are ______.
_______ ______ are simple cells and most are unicellular.
_____ includes bacteria and don't have a true nucleus.
The _____ _____ is a covering that regulates what comes into or leaves form the cell.
The _____ is a mixture of water, salts, proteins, and organelles.
The ____ is the control center of the cell. DNA and RNA are made here.
What are the 3 main parts of eukaryotic cells?
1. plasma membrane
The _____ _____ is also called "membrane" or "plasmslemma".
The ______ is a gelatin-like substance, plus structural fibers and organelles (but not the nucleus)
The ____ contains the genetic library for the cell.
The _____ _____ covers and protects the cell, controls what goes in and comes out, links to other cells, tells other cells who it is (flies a flag).
The _______ gives it's cell shape, contains structural (cytoskeletal) proteins, comprised of organelles (except nucleus) and cytosol.
The ______ is where the genetic information is stored (the library with cookbooks entitled "How to Make a New Cell", "How to Make the Proteins You Need", etc...
_____ is the genetic material that must be reproduced and read without error, and is generally never altered or destroyed.
_____ is made in the nucleus and exported into the cytoplasm, where it carries out its work: making proteins.
The new model for the cell membrane, which cam to be called the ______-_______ ______ features a lipid "sea" with protein "icebergs" floating in it and proteins which are integral or peripheral.
The lipids in the plasma membrane consist of ______ or ______ heads and ______ or ________ tails.
polar / hydrophillic heads;
non-polar / hydrophobic tails
_____ means embedded in bilayer, go from one side to the other.
_____ means it is associated with the inside or outside of the cell.
If the peripheral is _____ the cell, it links the cytoskeleton to the membrane.
If the peripheral is ______ the cell, it links the cell to connective tissue or to other cells.
_____ _____ ______ are loosely associated with the cell membrane and lie either completely on the outside or completely on the inside of the cell.
Peripheral membrane proteins
______ (________) ______ span the cell membrane from outside to inside the cell.
Integral (transmembrane) proteins
_______ tells us how easily a substance can cross the plasma membrane.
______ ______ is what defines a cell
What is the rule of thumb regarding selectively permeable?
small, neutrally charged, lipid-soluble substance can pass without assistance.
What are the 6 functional classes of membrane proteins?
1. ion channels
6. cell identity markers
____ _____ are integral and forms a pore through which a specific ion can flow to get across the membrane.
____ are integral and transports a specific substance across the membrane by undergoing a change in shape. These are also known as transporters.
_____ are integral and recognizes specific ligand and alters cell's function in some way.
_____ are integral and peripheral and catalyzes a reaction inside or outside the cell (depending on which direction the active site faces).
_____ are integral and peripheral and anchors filaments inside and outside the plasma membrane, providing structural stability and shape for the cell.
___ ____ _____ are glycoprotein and distinguishes your cells from anyone else's (unless you are an identical twin). An important class of such markers are the major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins.
Cell identity markers
The non-polar tails of lipid molecules prevent charged molecules, like ions, from crossing the cell membrane. ____ ____ allow ions to pass DOWN their concentration gradient (high to low). Some are open all the time, others are gated (open and close on demand).
Protein _____ can be transporters or pumps. Many molecules that cannot cross the cell membrane are "ferried". This can occur up or down the concentration gradient. If it occurs against the gradient, energy is required. Energy comes from ATP and other molecules that run down their concentration gradient.
The signaling molecule that binds to the receptor is called a ______.
The process by which a signal outside the cell is transformed into a charge inside the cell is called _____ ______.
_______ signals outside the cell can affect activities inside the cell. The cell uses these to detect an extracellular signal and transduce it to an intracellular signal.
Enzymes can't and don't change the energy profile of the reaction, but instead lower the ______ ______.
_______ are proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. The ones on the cell surface catalyze chemical reactions there.
______ link intracellular and extracellular structures. The internal structure of the cell must be connected to the connective tissues outside the cell. They join proteins inside and outside the cell.
Most cell markers consist of a complex, branched sugar polymer attached to a transmembrane protein. This combination is called a _______.
____ _____ are a way to identify cells that belong to you, and what organ they belong to. Sugars connected to proteins are commonly used as "flags".
______ transport moves substance "downhill" or "with" a gradient (high to low) and does not require energy.
_____ diffusion and _____ diffusion is the movement of solutes.
Simple and facilitated
_____ is the movement of solvent.
When both solutes and solvents are being moved, it is referred to as _______.
Molecules in a liquid or gaseous medium tend to spread themselves out evenly throughout the volume of the container. We call this _______.
______ diffusion is used to move substances such as glucose and various ions DOWN their concentration gradients.
_____ diffusion allows molecules in a gas or liquid to move around. The warmer the temperature, the more movement. The smaller the molecule, the more movement. Over time, the concentration of the substance will become equal in all parts of the system. It is the random motion of small particles in a solution (Brownian motion).
Facilitated diffusion uses protein ____ or ____ in the cell membrane to facilitate the diffusion.
carriers or channels
When we combine diffusion of water with a semi-permeable membrane, we get _____.
Osmosis is the term that describes the diffusion of solvents across a _____-________ membrane.
The ______ _______ is the pressure required to nullify the movement of water through the membrane.
______ describes the concentration of solutes and is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure.
A _______ solution = high salt concentration = low water concentration.
A ______ solution = low salt concentration = high water concentration.
An _____ solution = no net movement of water. The water concentration is the same inside and outside the cell.
In ____ solutions, the concentration of solutes is lower outside the cell than inside.
In ______ solutions, the concentration of solutes is higher outside the cell than inside.
When red blood cells shrink in a hypertonic solution, we say they _____: they take on a spiny shape, which is not good if the RBC needs to slide easily through blood vessels.
The medium - pure water - has fewer solutes than the inside of cells. Therefore, the medium is _______ to the cells and the cells swell and burst.
The medium - 0.85% salt water - has the same number of particles in the solution as the inside of the cells. Therefore, the medium is _______ to the cells. They neither shrink nor burst.
The medium - 3% salt water - has more particles in the solution than inside the cells. Therefore, the medium is _______ to the cells and the cells lose water and shrink.
______ is another type of passive transport. Solutes and colloids pass through a barrier based on size.
Each filtration medium (for example, filter paper in a coffee maker) has a "_____ _____".
_____ sorts particles based on size.
_____ transport moves substances "uphill" or "against" its concentration gradient (low to high), requires energy from ATP (directly or indirectly). It's energy sources are ATP or pre-existing storage of energy in a concentration gradient (potential energy).
_____ ______ transport is when molecules are moved against their concentration gradient (low to high), energy is required, ATP or existing ionic gradient are energy sources.
The sodium / potassium pump is _____, since 3 positive charges are pumped out for every 2 allowed in.
______ ______ transport involves two types of carrier proteins, symporters and antiporters.
In an ______ system, two ions move in opposite directions.
In a ______ system, a molecule and an ion move in the same direction.
In ______ active transport, we use the energy stored in the sodium concentration gradient established by primary active transport to move other solutes against their gradient.
Active transport uses _______ and _______ to take in and discard things needed or not needed by the cell.
During ______, the cell surface proteins (receptors) can bind molecules the cell wants to take in. After the material binds to the receptor, it is taken into the cell. This is a type of vesicluar transport.
In _____-_____ _____, cell surface proteins (receptor proteins) bind a substance of interest, and then signal the cell to begin the process of pinching off a vesicle.
_____ and _____ are a type of endocytosis.
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
______ is an important defense of the body against invaders. When invaders are detected, specialized white blood cells surround and kill the invading cells.
_______ is the cell's way of eating things. It is a specific form of endocytosis.
______ is akin to phagocytosis, but is used to bring liquids into the cell.
Pinocytosis is also called ____-____ _____.
In _______, the cell makes a pit, then seals it. In the process, a vesicleful of liquid is incorporated into the cell.
_______ is like phagocytosis, but for liquids instead of solids. The cell forms a pit, then seals it, "swallowing" a tiny ball of liquid. It is non-specific.
______ is used to send materials out of the cell in bulk.
______ is an active process which requires ATP for energy. It is a type of vesicular transport. It's like endocytosis but in reverse.
Recall that cells "fly a flag" with cell surface markers. These markers are placed on the cell membrane by ______.
Think of the _____ as a fruitcake because it is comprised of a soluble part (cytosol) plus large, semi-independent parts (organelles).
_____ is made up of water, solutes, suspended particles, lipid droplets and glycogen granules.
_______is the solvent (water) and solutes (salts and dissolved proteins) that make up the soluble part of the cytoplasm (it's the cake part of a fruitcake).
Cytoplasm is the cytosol plus ______. The ______ are the fruits and nuts in the fruitcake.
organelles (for both)
The business of the cell is carried out by the _______.
Just like the skeleton gives the body a shape and structural stability, the _______ gives the cell shape and structural ability.
What are the 5 main divisions of organelle function?
1. structural integrity
4. storage and digestion
5. energy production
______ are specialized structures with characteristic shapes. Each one has specific functions.
_______ is a network of three types of protein filaments: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. It maintains the shape and general organization of cellular contents; responsible for cellular movements.
______ is a pair of centrioles plus pericentriolar material. The pericentriolar material contains tubulins, which are used for growth of the mitotic spindle and microtubule formation.
____ and _____ are the motile cell surface projections that contain 20 microtubules and a basal body.
Cilia and flagella
_____ move fluids over a cell's surface.
_____ move an entire cell.
______ is composed of two subunits containing ribosomal RNA and proteins; may be free in cytosol or attached to rough ER. Protein synthesis.
_____ _____ (___) is a membranous network of flattened sacs or tubules.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
_____ ____ is covered by ribosomes and is attached to the nuclear envelope. It synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids that are transferred to cellular organelles, inserted into the plasma membrane, or secreted during exocytosis.
_____ _____ lacks ribosomes. It synthesizes fatty acids and steroids; inactivates or detoxifies drugs; removes phosphate group from glucose-6-phosphate; and stores and releases calcium ions in muscle cells.
_____ _____ consists of 3 - 20 flattened membraneous sacs called cisternae; structurally and functionally divided into entry (cis) face, medial cisternae, and exit (trans) face. Entry (cis) face accepts proteins from rough ER; medial cisternae form glycoproteins, glycolipids, and lipoproteins; exit (trans) face modifies the molecules further, then sorts and packages them for transport to their destinations.
______ is a vesicle formed from Golgi complex; contains digestive enzymes. Fuses with and digests contents of endosomes, pinocytic vesicles, and phagosomes and transports final products of digestion into cytosol; digests worn-out organelles (autophagy), entire cells (autolysis), and extracellular materials.
_______ is a vesicle containing oxidases (oxidative enzymes) and catalase (decomposes hydrogen peroxide); new ones bud from preexisting ones. Oxidizes amino acids and fatty acids; detoxifies harmful substances, such as alcohol; produces hydrogen peroxide.
_______ is a tiny barrel-shaped structure that contains proteases (proteolytic enzymes). Degrades unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins by cutting them into small peptides.
_______ consists of an outer and an inner mitochondirla membrane, cristae and matrix; new mitochondria form from preexisting ones. Site of aerobic cellular respiration reactions that produce most of a cell's ATP.
The ______ is to the cell as the human skeleton is to the body.
The cytoskeleton is made up of a number of different proteins that form thread- or tube-like structures. They are classified by size (smallest to largest), as ________, ________, _________.
Microfilaments are made of the protein ______.
________ are made of the protein actin.
________ are involved with muscle contraction, cell division and cell locomotion.
______ ______ are made from proteins such as keratin, vimentin, neurofilaments protein, lamins, and several others.
_______ ______ help with mechanical stress and help attach cells to other cells or fibers.
________ are made up of tubulin along with MAPs.
Microtubules are made up of _____ along with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs).
Microtubules are made up of tubulin along with _________ (____).
microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs)
_______ are 8nm in diameter and made of globular actin protein assembled into two strands.
_______ are 25nm in diameter and is a hollow tube made of two different forms of tubulin protein.
______ are 10nm in diameter and many different proteins can make these.
In cells that have an absorptive function, as in the intestin, a call can increase its surface area with little shaggy hairs, or _______.
______-______ ______ are cell locations where microtubules are built, so they represent the origin of microtubules.
Microtubule-organizing center (MTOC)
In cell division (mitosis), centrosomes give rise to microtubules which in turn form the ____ ____ (____ _____), a rigid structure which lines up, and then divides chromosomes.
spindle apparatus (mitotic spindle)
In cell division (mitosis), centrosomes give rise to microtubules which in turn form the spindle apparatus (mitotic spindle), a rigid structure which lines up, and then divides _________.
_______ are the packed genetic material that must be evenly split between the two daughter cells.
Centrosomes are comprised of _______ ______ and a _______.
pericentriolar material and centriole
______ are the "root" from which microtubule spirals grow.
A _____ is a hair-like extension on the cell surface. It is usually on the inside of a tube-like structure and it moves material across the surface of the cell.
cilium (pl. cilia)
A _______ is a whip-like extension on the cell surface. In humans, it is only found on the sperm cell. It moves the cell through material.
flagellum (pl. flagella)
The most notable example of cilia in the human body is in the lower respiratory tract, where they drive something called the ______ _______.
In a cilium, the motion is akin to rowing a boat: there is a _____ _____ as the cilium presents its full length and maximum resistance to the overlying material; and a _____ ______ as the cilium folds to present as little resistance as possible to the overlying material.
power stroke; return stroke
______ are the site of protein synthesis and it's job is to make proteins.
Ribosomes are a combination of a particular shape of RNA, called _______ ______ _____, plus proteins.
ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA)
Ribosomes are found either as ____ ____ or associated with membranes to make up the _____ ______ ______
rough endoplasmic reticulum
_______ are made up of a large subunit (60S) and a small subunit (40S) which come together to form this completely.
_____ _____ synthesize proteins in the cytosol.
The _______ is a collection of membrane bags with ribosomes arranged all along the outside.
RER (Rough endoplasmic reticulum)
Ribosomes use another type of RNA, called ______ ______ as the instruction sheet.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Ribosomse use another type of RNA, called ______ ______ as the carrier for the raw materials of proteins (amino acids).
transfer RNA (tRNA)
What are the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough and smooth
The _____ is actually several different organelles with similar appearance, so that they cannot be distinguished in electron micrographs.
SER (smooth ER)
What are the functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
The _____ _____ receives unprocessed proteins from the rough ER and modifies them into their final form.
Golgi complex or Golgi apparatus
The ____ packages the proteins and "tags" them for export to their final destination.
The Golgi is curved, and its functions are not distributed symmetrically. Rather, the _____ face or ___ face receives transported material from the RER while the _____ face or _____ face gives rise to secretory vesicles.
entry or cis;
exit or trans
The following are the steps in ______ _____:
1. proteins are synthesized in the RER.
2. Transport vesicles carry "raw", unprocessed proteins to the Golgi.
3. Transport vesicles fuse with the entry (cis) face of the Golgi.
4. As proteins are processed, they are moved fro one Golgi stack to the next by transfer vesicles. In the Golgi stacks, the unused part of proteins are removed by one set of enzymes and, if a glycoprotein is being produced, the branched sugar groups are added here.
5. The last transfer vesicle fuses with the exit (trans) face of the Golgi.
6. The processed, completed protein is packaged into a vesicle and the vesicle is shed from the exit face of the Golgi.
If the vesicle contains a ______ protein, it is packaged into a vesicle and released from the cell by exocytosis.
If the vesicle contains a _____ protein (or ______), it is packaged into a membrane vesicle which fuses with the cell membrane and becomes part of the cell surface.
membrane or glycoprotein
If the vesicle contains proteins which are ____ or ___ _____, then it is packaged into a vesicle which is directed to the lysosome for breakdown and recycling.
defective or not needed
_______ are the cell's recycling bin.
If cell components are malformed, or worn down by age, or no longer needed, they are packaged into a vesicle that fuses with a ______. There, the carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are broken into monomers and reused.
_______ are formed at the Golgi complex. If the cell is sick or dying, the entire cell is dumped into the garbage can by releasing enzymes from this.
Lysosomes pH is about ____.
Enzymes (_____ _______) found in the lysosome are "tuned" to prefer the acid pH.
______ are named this because they make hydrogen peroxide.
Normally, hydrogen peroxide is kept sequestered in the peroxisome. If it escapes, it must be inactivated by the enzyme ______.
Peroxisomes are found in the ____ and _____, where they help carry out the detoxification functions of these organs.
liver and kidney
Peroxisomes are, also, used to break down fatty acids through a reaction called _____ _____.
The beta oxidation is used to break down fats to obtain ______.
Misfolded or malformed proteins are degraded in an organelle called the _______.
A regular protein called ______ tags the proteins so the proteasome knows which is the offending protein.
In the US, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing makes currency. In cells, the ____ makes ATP.
mitochondrion (pl. mitochondria)
_________ is the site of energy production for the cell and known as the ATP factories.
Which cell types have large numbers of mitochondria?
1. skin or muscle?
2. bone or nerve?
3. RBC or WBC?
______ have 2 phospholipid bilayers and their own DNA.
Mitochondria (ATP factories)
The inner membrane of mitochondria is extensively ____ to increase surface area.
____ are pumped into the space between inner and outer membrans to "run" ATP synthesis.
What are the 2 components for the process of metabolism?
anabolism and catabolism
______ is the buildup of smaller molecules into large ones.
Energy is stored in bonds; this is ______.
_____ reactions consume ATP and release waste energy as heat.
______ is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones.
Energy is released from bonds; this is _____.
____ reactions create ATP and also release waste energy as heat.
______ reaction requires energy.
______ reaction releases energy.
Metabolism is a controlled burning process (_____ in chemical terms).
_____ system absorbs nutrients from food.
____ system brings O2 in, blows CO2 out.
______ system brings nutrients and O2 to cells, carries waste & CO2 away.
______ system rids the body of waste.
The starting material for cellular energy production is ______.
The ultimate product of catabolism is ____, the energy currecny of the cell.
_______ is a three-carbon molecule that is an important intermediate in metabolism.
Pyruvic acid or Pyruvate
______ also has three carbons, but represents a metabolic "dead end".
Lactic acid or Lactate
A molecule called ______ is like a "bucket" or "shovel" for two-carbon molecules.
coenzyme A (CoA)
The 2 carbon molecule that is carried by CoA is an ______ group.
When CoA is carrying an acetyl group, it is called _______.
Protons produced by the ____ _____ are carried by FADH and NAD+.
Protons produced by the Krebs cycle are carried by ____ and ____.
FADH and NAD+
There are alos electron "buckets" which are part of the _____ _____ _____ of mitochondria.
electron transport chain
Two major players in metabolism are ____ and _____.
pyruvic acid (pyruvate) and lactic acid (lactate)
______ is a sulfur-containing molecule that acts as a carbon carrier. Think of this a "shovel" that can only hold 2 carbon "lumps of coal".
Coenzyme A (CoA)
Only 2 carbon units can fit into the _____ ____ "furnace".
These 2 cofactors are not consumed in metabolic reactions. Rather, they serve as "hydrogen buckets" carrying hydrogen atoms (H) to where they are needed.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
Cells of the human body generally prefer ____ as a carbon source.
The energy between carbon atoms in glucose is converted into high-energy ______ ______ of ATP.
If oxygen is absent or in short supply, then cellular respiration is _______.
Anaerobic metabolism of glucose is called ______.
Glycolysis occurs in the _____ and does not need mitochondria.
In glycolysis, one glucose molecule is converted into 2 molecules of _____.
pyruvic acid (pyruvate)
If oxygen is plentiful, then ____ respiration can take place.
Aerobic respiration yields _____ net ATP molecules per glucose molecule.
______ O2: anaerobic pathway only, lactic acid is formed as a by-product.
____ O2: pyruvic acid (3 carbons) is tranferred to the mitochondrion for further processing.
If oxygen is present, then the _____ is fed into the aerobic respiratory pathway.
pyruvate (with 3 carbons)
If oxygen is absent, then pyruvate is converted to ____, a metabolic dead end.
When lactic acid builds us as a results of anaerobic metabolism, the cell becomes more acidic and the cell's metabolism is rendered even less effective, a condition called ____ _____.
_____ buildup can interfere with muscle strenght during exercise.
If oxygen is absent, then the hexose (6-carbon) glucose is converted to ___ lactates and ___ carbons each.
If oxygen is present, then the hexose (6-carbon) glucose is converted to __ pyruvates and ___ carbons each.
_____ has 3 carbons.
The steps in aerobic metabolism can only utilize 2 carbon units which, like lumps of coal, are "shoveled" into the pathway using a carrier called _____. The coal is consumed, the shovel is not.
coenzyme A (CoA)
The combination of a 2 carbon acetyl group and the coenzyme A "shovel" is called ______ or ____ for short.
acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA
Before entering the Krebs cycle, _____ loses one carbon in the form of CO2. The resulting 2 carbon molecule is attached to a carrier, making acetyl CoA.
As the two-carbon molecule enters the Krebs cycle, the ____ is lost and a 6 carbon molecule is formed.
During the Krebs cycle, the 2 carbons are lost as CO2 and the equivalent of one ATP is formed from ____ and ____. Also, hydrogens are transferred to 3 molecules of NAD+ and one molecule of FAD, making 3 NADHs and one FADH2.
ADP and phosphate
The 2 carbon acetate units are fed into the ____ ____, also called the _____ _____ ____ or ____ ____ (___).
citric acid cycle;
tricarboxylic acid (TCA)
As the name implies, the Krebs cycle operates in a ______ fashion, adding and subtracting carbons and giving off electrons as a side-product.
The electrons in the Krebs cycle are carried by cofactors called FADH2 and NADH so they may be used in the ____ _____ _____.
electron transport chain
In the Krebs cycle and in the electron transport chain, _____ such as NAD+ and FAD are used to shift electrons around.
Oxygen is the ____ and _____ acceptor at the end ogf the electron transport chain.
proton and electron
During cellular respiration, ______ (doesn't use oxygen) gives 2 net ATP.
During cellular respiration, _____ is fed into the system.
During cellular respiration, one glucose molecule makes two ____ _____ (carried by CoA) and 2CO2.
During cellular respiration, acetyle-CoA feeds _____ _____ and makes CO2 ad cofactors.
During cellular respiration, _______ feed electron transport chain, "wheel" driven by H- "stream" water and APT produced.
______ energy is stored energy, like a coiled spring of the energy between bonds in gunpowder.
______ energy is moving energy, like the jack-in-the-box that pops up or the bullet moving towards a target.
Excess glucose that is not needed for cellular metabolism is converted to glycogen and stored in the _____ and ______.
liver and muscle
If glucose in blood exceeds metabolic needs, then glucose is stored in a readily-available form called _____.
Breakdown of proteins in skeletal muscles and other tissues releases large amounts of amino acids, The 2 carbon backbone of these amino acids can be used for production of glucose, although this is a highly inefficient process. The process is called _____ and occurs in the liver.
gluconeogenesis ("making new glucose")
Some amino acid 2 carbon backbones can be fed directly into the Krebs cycle. This leaves the amino group, which ends up as ____, a major component of urine.
Some amino acids (called _____ _____ _____) cannot be made in any case and must be part of the human diet.
essential amino acids
_______ are glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains.
_____ ____ is a chain of carbons.
In the disease called _____ _____, the cells cannot metabolize glucose. Instead they turn to fat stores as an energy source.
Fat (lipid) is metabolized by beta oxidation. This produces ____ as a by-product so ____ is a sign of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
What are the 3 types of ketones?
What are the functions of the centrosome in the cell?
forms a mitotic spindle;
forms cilia and flagella
What are the functions of the cilium in the cell?
moves fluids along the cell's surface
What are the functions of the cytoskeleton in the cell?
provides intracellular framework
What are the functions of the cytosol in the cell?
transport of dissolved substances;
provides intracellular environment
What are the functions of the Golgi complex in the cell?
modifies chemicals received from the RER;
forms secretory vesicles;
forms lysosomes and peroxisomes
What are the functions of the lysosomes in the cell?
What are the functions of the nucleus in the cell?
protects gene (DNA);
copies information from gene to RNA
What are the functions of the mitochondrion in the cell?
What are the functions of the peroxisome in the cell?
What are the functions of the plasma membrane in the cell?
used to identify cells;
provides means for enzymatic reactions;
regulates transportation of molecules;
carries impulses for communication;
forms cell junctions
What are the functions of the ribosome in the cell?
What are the functions of the rough ER in the cell?
binds up ribosomes;
synthesizes phospholipids for membranes
What are the functions of the secretory vesicle in the cell?
discharges proteins via exocytosis
What are the functions of the smooth ER in the cell?
synthesizes fats and steroids
What chemicals are transported through diffusion through bilayer?
What chemicals are transported through diffusion through pores / channels?
What chemicals are transported through facilitated diffusion?
What chemicals are transported through osmosis?
What chemicals are transported through primary active transport?
What chemicals are transported through secondary active transport?
What chemicals are transported through endocytosis?
What chemicals are transported through exocytosis?
The electron transport chain occurs in what organelle?
Linker proteins may join the plasma membrane to ________.
The glucose concentration in blood and extracellular fluid is much higher than the glucose concentration inside the cell. Therefore, in order to move glucose into the cell, we need __________________________________.
protein carriers that mediate facilitated diffusion