Module 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 4 Deck (269):
1

The ____ is the basic unit of all living things.

cell

2

_______ _____ are complex cells with a membrane bound nucleus and subcellular structures (organelles).

Eukaryotic cells

3

All fungi, plant, and animals are ______.

eukaryotes

4

_______ ______ are simple cells and most are unicellular.

Prokaryotic cells

5

_____ includes bacteria and don't have a true nucleus.

Prokaryotes

6

The _____ _____ is a covering that regulates what comes into or leaves form the cell.

plasma membrane

7

The _____ is a mixture of water, salts, proteins, and organelles.

cytoplasm

8

The ____ is the control center of the cell. DNA and RNA are made here.

nucleus

9

What are the 3 main parts of eukaryotic cells?

1. plasma membrane
2. cytoplasm
3. nucleus

10

The _____ _____ is also called "membrane" or "plasmslemma".

plasma membrane

11

The ______ is a gelatin-like substance, plus structural fibers and organelles (but not the nucleus)

cytoplasm

12

The ____ contains the genetic library for the cell.

nucleus

13

The _____ _____ covers and protects the cell, controls what goes in and comes out, links to other cells, tells other cells who it is (flies a flag).

plasma membrane

14

The _______ gives it's cell shape, contains structural (cytoskeletal) proteins, comprised of organelles (except nucleus) and cytosol.

cytoplasm

15

The ______ is where the genetic information is stored (the library with cookbooks entitled "How to Make a New Cell", "How to Make the Proteins You Need", etc...

nucleus

16

_____ is the genetic material that must be reproduced and read without error, and is generally never altered or destroyed.

DNA

17

_____ is made in the nucleus and exported into the cytoplasm, where it carries out its work: making proteins.

RNA

18

The new model for the cell membrane, which cam to be called the ______-_______ ______ features a lipid "sea" with protein "icebergs" floating in it and proteins which are integral or peripheral.

fluid-mosaic model

19

The lipids in the plasma membrane consist of ______ or ______ heads and ______ or ________ tails.

polar / hydrophillic heads;
non-polar / hydrophobic tails

20

_____ means embedded in bilayer, go from one side to the other.

Integral

21

_____ means it is associated with the inside or outside of the cell.

Peripheral

22

If the peripheral is _____ the cell, it links the cytoskeleton to the membrane.

inside

23

If the peripheral is ______ the cell, it links the cell to connective tissue or to other cells.

outside

24

_____ _____ ______ are loosely associated with the cell membrane and lie either completely on the outside or completely on the inside of the cell.

Peripheral membrane proteins

25

______ (________) ______ span the cell membrane from outside to inside the cell.

Integral (transmembrane) proteins

26

_______ tells us how easily a substance can cross the plasma membrane.

Permeability

27

______ ______ is what defines a cell

Differential permeability

28

What is the rule of thumb regarding selectively permeable?

small, neutrally charged, lipid-soluble substance can pass without assistance.

29

What are the 6 functional classes of membrane proteins?

1. ion channels
2. carriers
3. receptors
4. enzymes
5. linkers
6. cell identity markers

30

____ _____ are integral and forms a pore through which a specific ion can flow to get across the membrane.

Ion channels

31

____ are integral and transports a specific substance across the membrane by undergoing a change in shape. These are also known as transporters.

Carriers

32

_____ are integral and recognizes specific ligand and alters cell's function in some way.

Receptors

33

_____ are integral and peripheral and catalyzes a reaction inside or outside the cell (depending on which direction the active site faces).

Enzymes

34

_____ are integral and peripheral and anchors filaments inside and outside the plasma membrane, providing structural stability and shape for the cell.

Linkers

35

___ ____ _____ are glycoprotein and distinguishes your cells from anyone else's (unless you are an identical twin). An important class of such markers are the major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins.

Cell identity markers

36

The non-polar tails of lipid molecules prevent charged molecules, like ions, from crossing the cell membrane. ____ ____ allow ions to pass DOWN their concentration gradient (high to low). Some are open all the time, others are gated (open and close on demand).

Ion channels

37

Protein _____ can be transporters or pumps. Many molecules that cannot cross the cell membrane are "ferried". This can occur up or down the concentration gradient. If it occurs against the gradient, energy is required. Energy comes from ATP and other molecules that run down their concentration gradient.

carriers

38

The signaling molecule that binds to the receptor is called a ______.

ligand

39

The process by which a signal outside the cell is transformed into a charge inside the cell is called _____ ______.

signal transduction

40

_______ signals outside the cell can affect activities inside the cell. The cell uses these to detect an extracellular signal and transduce it to an intracellular signal.

Receptors

41

Enzymes can't and don't change the energy profile of the reaction, but instead lower the ______ ______.

activation energy

42

_______ are proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. The ones on the cell surface catalyze chemical reactions there.

Enzymes

43

______ link intracellular and extracellular structures. The internal structure of the cell must be connected to the connective tissues outside the cell. They join proteins inside and outside the cell.

Linkers

44

Most cell markers consist of a complex, branched sugar polymer attached to a transmembrane protein. This combination is called a _______.

glycoprotein

45

____ _____ are a way to identify cells that belong to you, and what organ they belong to. Sugars connected to proteins are commonly used as "flags".

Cell markers

46

______ transport moves substance "downhill" or "with" a gradient (high to low) and does not require energy.

Passive

47

_____ diffusion and _____ diffusion is the movement of solutes.

Simple and facilitated

48

_____ is the movement of solvent.

osmosis

49

When both solutes and solvents are being moved, it is referred to as _______.

filtration

50

Molecules in a liquid or gaseous medium tend to spread themselves out evenly throughout the volume of the container. We call this _______.

diffusion

51

______ diffusion is used to move substances such as glucose and various ions DOWN their concentration gradients.

Facilitated

52

_____ diffusion allows molecules in a gas or liquid to move around. The warmer the temperature, the more movement. The smaller the molecule, the more movement. Over time, the concentration of the substance will become equal in all parts of the system. It is the random motion of small particles in a solution (Brownian motion).

Simple

53

Facilitated diffusion uses protein ____ or ____ in the cell membrane to facilitate the diffusion.

carriers or channels

54

When we combine diffusion of water with a semi-permeable membrane, we get _____.

osmosis

55

Osmosis is the term that describes the diffusion of solvents across a _____-________ membrane.

semi-permeable

56

The ______ _______ is the pressure required to nullify the movement of water through the membrane.

osmotic pressure

57

______ describes the concentration of solutes and is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure.

Tonicity

58

A _______ solution = high salt concentration = low water concentration.

Hypertonic

59

A ______ solution = low salt concentration = high water concentration.

hypotonic

60

An _____ solution = no net movement of water. The water concentration is the same inside and outside the cell.

isotonic

61

In ____ solutions, the concentration of solutes is lower outside the cell than inside.

hypotonic

62

In ______ solutions, the concentration of solutes is higher outside the cell than inside.

hypertonic

63

When red blood cells shrink in a hypertonic solution, we say they _____: they take on a spiny shape, which is not good if the RBC needs to slide easily through blood vessels.

crenate

64

The medium - pure water - has fewer solutes than the inside of cells. Therefore, the medium is _______ to the cells and the cells swell and burst.

hypotonic

65

The medium - 0.85% salt water - has the same number of particles in the solution as the inside of the cells. Therefore, the medium is _______ to the cells. They neither shrink nor burst.

isotonic

66

The medium - 3% salt water - has more particles in the solution than inside the cells. Therefore, the medium is _______ to the cells and the cells lose water and shrink.

hypertonic

67

______ is another type of passive transport. Solutes and colloids pass through a barrier based on size.

Filtration

68

Each filtration medium (for example, filter paper in a coffee maker) has a "_____ _____".

pore size

69

_____ sorts particles based on size.

Filtration

70

_____ transport moves substances "uphill" or "against" its concentration gradient (low to high), requires energy from ATP (directly or indirectly). It's energy sources are ATP or pre-existing storage of energy in a concentration gradient (potential energy).

Active

71

_____ ______ transport is when molecules are moved against their concentration gradient (low to high), energy is required, ATP or existing ionic gradient are energy sources.

Primary Active

72

The sodium / potassium pump is _____, since 3 positive charges are pumped out for every 2 allowed in.

electrogenic

73

______ ______ transport involves two types of carrier proteins, symporters and antiporters.

Secondary active

74

In an ______ system, two ions move in opposite directions.

antiport

75

In a ______ system, a molecule and an ion move in the same direction.

symport

76

In ______ active transport, we use the energy stored in the sodium concentration gradient established by primary active transport to move other solutes against their gradient.

secondary

77

Active transport uses _______ and _______ to take in and discard things needed or not needed by the cell.

endocytosis; exocytosis

78

During ______, the cell surface proteins (receptors) can bind molecules the cell wants to take in. After the material binds to the receptor, it is taken into the cell. This is a type of vesicluar transport.

endocytosis

79

In _____-_____ _____, cell surface proteins (receptor proteins) bind a substance of interest, and then signal the cell to begin the process of pinching off a vesicle.

receptor-mediated endocytosis

80

_____ and _____ are a type of endocytosis.

phagocytosis and pinocytosis

81

______ is an important defense of the body against invaders. When invaders are detected, specialized white blood cells surround and kill the invading cells.

Phagocytosis

82

_______ is the cell's way of eating things. It is a specific form of endocytosis.

Phagocytosis

83

______ is akin to phagocytosis, but is used to bring liquids into the cell.

Pinocytosis

84

Pinocytosis is also called ____-____ _____.

bulk-phase endocytosis

85

In _______, the cell makes a pit, then seals it. In the process, a vesicleful of liquid is incorporated into the cell.

pinocytosis

86

_______ is like phagocytosis, but for liquids instead of solids. The cell forms a pit, then seals it, "swallowing" a tiny ball of liquid. It is non-specific.

Pinocytosis

87

______ is used to send materials out of the cell in bulk.

Exocytosis

88

______ is an active process which requires ATP for energy. It is a type of vesicular transport. It's like endocytosis but in reverse.

Exocytosis

89

Recall that cells "fly a flag" with cell surface markers. These markers are placed on the cell membrane by ______.

exocytosis

90

Think of the _____ as a fruitcake because it is comprised of a soluble part (cytosol) plus large, semi-independent parts (organelles).

cytoplasm

91

_____ is made up of water, solutes, suspended particles, lipid droplets and glycogen granules.

Cytosol

92

_______is the solvent (water) and solutes (salts and dissolved proteins) that make up the soluble part of the cytoplasm (it's the cake part of a fruitcake).

Cytosol

93

Cytoplasm is the cytosol plus ______. The ______ are the fruits and nuts in the fruitcake.

organelles (for both)

94

The business of the cell is carried out by the _______.

organelles

95

Just like the skeleton gives the body a shape and structural stability, the _______ gives the cell shape and structural ability.

cytoskeleton

96

What are the 5 main divisions of organelle function?

1. structural integrity
2. motility
3. synthesis
4. storage and digestion
5. energy production

97

______ are specialized structures with characteristic shapes. Each one has specific functions.

Organelles

98

_______ is a network of three types of protein filaments: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. It maintains the shape and general organization of cellular contents; responsible for cellular movements.

Cytoskeleton

99

______ is a pair of centrioles plus pericentriolar material. The pericentriolar material contains tubulins, which are used for growth of the mitotic spindle and microtubule formation.

Centrosome

100

____ and _____ are the motile cell surface projections that contain 20 microtubules and a basal body.

Cilia and flagella

101

_____ move fluids over a cell's surface.

Cilia

102

_____ move an entire cell.

Flagella

103

______ is composed of two subunits containing ribosomal RNA and proteins; may be free in cytosol or attached to rough ER. Protein synthesis.

Ribosome

104

_____ _____ (___) is a membranous network of flattened sacs or tubules.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

105

_____ ____ is covered by ribosomes and is attached to the nuclear envelope. It synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids that are transferred to cellular organelles, inserted into the plasma membrane, or secreted during exocytosis.

Rough ER

106

_____ _____ lacks ribosomes. It synthesizes fatty acids and steroids; inactivates or detoxifies drugs; removes phosphate group from glucose-6-phosphate; and stores and releases calcium ions in muscle cells.

Smooth ER

107

_____ _____ consists of 3 - 20 flattened membraneous sacs called cisternae; structurally and functionally divided into entry (cis) face, medial cisternae, and exit (trans) face. Entry (cis) face accepts proteins from rough ER; medial cisternae form glycoproteins, glycolipids, and lipoproteins; exit (trans) face modifies the molecules further, then sorts and packages them for transport to their destinations.

Golgi apparatus

108

______ is a vesicle formed from Golgi complex; contains digestive enzymes. Fuses with and digests contents of endosomes, pinocytic vesicles, and phagosomes and transports final products of digestion into cytosol; digests worn-out organelles (autophagy), entire cells (autolysis), and extracellular materials.

Lysosome

109

_______ is a vesicle containing oxidases (oxidative enzymes) and catalase (decomposes hydrogen peroxide); new ones bud from preexisting ones. Oxidizes amino acids and fatty acids; detoxifies harmful substances, such as alcohol; produces hydrogen peroxide.

Peroxisome

110

_______ is a tiny barrel-shaped structure that contains proteases (proteolytic enzymes). Degrades unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins by cutting them into small peptides.

Proteasome

111

_______ consists of an outer and an inner mitochondirla membrane, cristae and matrix; new mitochondria form from preexisting ones. Site of aerobic cellular respiration reactions that produce most of a cell's ATP.

Mitochondrion

112

The ______ is to the cell as the human skeleton is to the body.

cytoskeleton

113

The cytoskeleton is made up of a number of different proteins that form thread- or tube-like structures. They are classified by size (smallest to largest), as ________, ________, _________.

microfilaments
intermediate filaments
microtubules

114

Microfilaments are made of the protein ______.

actin

115

________ are made of the protein actin.

Microfilaments

116

________ are involved with muscle contraction, cell division and cell locomotion.

Microfilaments

117

______ ______ are made from proteins such as keratin, vimentin, neurofilaments protein, lamins, and several others.

Intermediate filaments

118

_______ ______ help with mechanical stress and help attach cells to other cells or fibers.

Intermediate filaments

119

________ are made up of tubulin along with MAPs.

Microtubules

120

Microtubules are made up of _____ along with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs).

tubulin

121

Microtubules are made up of tubulin along with _________ (____).

microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs)

122

_______ are 8nm in diameter and made of globular actin protein assembled into two strands.

Microfilaments

123

_______ are 25nm in diameter and is a hollow tube made of two different forms of tubulin protein.

Microtubules

124

______ are 10nm in diameter and many different proteins can make these.

Intermediate filaments

125

In cells that have an absorptive function, as in the intestin, a call can increase its surface area with little shaggy hairs, or _______.

microvilli

126

______-______ ______ are cell locations where microtubules are built, so they represent the origin of microtubules.

Microtubule-organizing center (MTOC)

127

In cell division (mitosis), centrosomes give rise to microtubules which in turn form the ____ ____ (____ _____), a rigid structure which lines up, and then divides chromosomes.

spindle apparatus (mitotic spindle)

128

In cell division (mitosis), centrosomes give rise to microtubules which in turn form the spindle apparatus (mitotic spindle), a rigid structure which lines up, and then divides _________.

chromosomes

129

_______ are the packed genetic material that must be evenly split between the two daughter cells.

Chromosomes

130

Centrosomes are comprised of _______ ______ and a _______.

pericentriolar material and centriole

131

______ are the "root" from which microtubule spirals grow.

Centrosomes

132

A _____ is a hair-like extension on the cell surface. It is usually on the inside of a tube-like structure and it moves material across the surface of the cell.

cilium (pl. cilia)

133

A _______ is a whip-like extension on the cell surface. In humans, it is only found on the sperm cell. It moves the cell through material.

flagellum (pl. flagella)

134

The most notable example of cilia in the human body is in the lower respiratory tract, where they drive something called the ______ _______.

mucociliary escalator

135

In a cilium, the motion is akin to rowing a boat: there is a _____ _____ as the cilium presents its full length and maximum resistance to the overlying material; and a _____ ______ as the cilium folds to present as little resistance as possible to the overlying material.

power stroke; return stroke

136

______ are the site of protein synthesis and it's job is to make proteins.

Ribosomes

137

Ribosomes are a combination of a particular shape of RNA, called _______ ______ _____, plus proteins.

ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA)

138

Ribosomes are found either as ____ ____ or associated with membranes to make up the _____ ______ ______

free ribosomes;
rough endoplasmic reticulum

139

_______ are made up of a large subunit (60S) and a small subunit (40S) which come together to form this completely.

Ribosomes

140

_____ _____ synthesize proteins in the cytosol.

Free ribosomes

141

The _______ is a collection of membrane bags with ribosomes arranged all along the outside.

RER (Rough endoplasmic reticulum)

142

Ribosomes use another type of RNA, called ______ ______ as the instruction sheet.

messenger RNA (mRNA)

143

Ribosomse use another type of RNA, called ______ ______ as the carrier for the raw materials of proteins (amino acids).

transfer RNA (tRNA)

144

What are the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum?

Rough and smooth

145

The _____ is actually several different organelles with similar appearance, so that they cannot be distinguished in electron micrographs.

SER (smooth ER)

146

What are the functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

synthesis;
storage;
digestion

147

The _____ _____ receives unprocessed proteins from the rough ER and modifies them into their final form.

Golgi complex or Golgi apparatus

148

The ____ packages the proteins and "tags" them for export to their final destination.

Golgi

149

The Golgi is curved, and its functions are not distributed symmetrically. Rather, the _____ face or ___ face receives transported material from the RER while the _____ face or _____ face gives rise to secretory vesicles.

entry or cis;
exit or trans

150

The following are the steps in ______ _____:
1. proteins are synthesized in the RER.
2. Transport vesicles carry "raw", unprocessed proteins to the Golgi.
3. Transport vesicles fuse with the entry (cis) face of the Golgi.
4. As proteins are processed, they are moved fro one Golgi stack to the next by transfer vesicles. In the Golgi stacks, the unused part of proteins are removed by one set of enzymes and, if a glycoprotein is being produced, the branched sugar groups are added here.
5. The last transfer vesicle fuses with the exit (trans) face of the Golgi.
6. The processed, completed protein is packaged into a vesicle and the vesicle is shed from the exit face of the Golgi.

protein processing

151

If the vesicle contains a ______ protein, it is packaged into a vesicle and released from the cell by exocytosis.

secretory

152

If the vesicle contains a _____ protein (or ______), it is packaged into a membrane vesicle which fuses with the cell membrane and becomes part of the cell surface.

membrane or glycoprotein

153

If the vesicle contains proteins which are ____ or ___ _____, then it is packaged into a vesicle which is directed to the lysosome for breakdown and recycling.

defective or not needed

154

_______ are the cell's recycling bin.

Lysosomes

155

If cell components are malformed, or worn down by age, or no longer needed, they are packaged into a vesicle that fuses with a ______. There, the carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are broken into monomers and reused.

lysosome

156

_______ are formed at the Golgi complex. If the cell is sick or dying, the entire cell is dumped into the garbage can by releasing enzymes from this.

lysosomes

157

Lysosomes pH is about ____.

5.0

158

Enzymes (_____ _______) found in the lysosome are "tuned" to prefer the acid pH.

acid hydrolases

159

______ are named this because they make hydrogen peroxide.

Peroxisomes

160

Normally, hydrogen peroxide is kept sequestered in the peroxisome. If it escapes, it must be inactivated by the enzyme ______.

catalase

161

Peroxisomes are found in the ____ and _____, where they help carry out the detoxification functions of these organs.

liver and kidney

162

Peroxisomes are, also, used to break down fatty acids through a reaction called _____ _____.

beta oxidation

163

The beta oxidation is used to break down fats to obtain ______.

energy

164

Misfolded or malformed proteins are degraded in an organelle called the _______.

proteasome

165

A regular protein called ______ tags the proteins so the proteasome knows which is the offending protein.

ubiquitin

166

In the US, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing makes currency. In cells, the ____ makes ATP.

mitochondrion (pl. mitochondria)

167

_________ is the site of energy production for the cell and known as the ATP factories.

Mitochondria

168

Which cell types have large numbers of mitochondria?
1. skin or muscle?
2. bone or nerve?
3. RBC or WBC?

muscle,
nerve,
WBC

169

______ have 2 phospholipid bilayers and their own DNA.

Mitochondria (ATP factories)

170

The inner membrane of mitochondria is extensively ____ to increase surface area.

folded

171

____ are pumped into the space between inner and outer membrans to "run" ATP synthesis.

Protons

172

What are the 2 components for the process of metabolism?

anabolism and catabolism

173

______ is the buildup of smaller molecules into large ones.

Anabolism

174

Energy is stored in bonds; this is ______.

endergonic

175

_____ reactions consume ATP and release waste energy as heat.

Anabolic

176

______ is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones.

Catabolism

177

Energy is released from bonds; this is _____.

exergonic

178

____ reactions create ATP and also release waste energy as heat.

Catabolic

179

______ reaction requires energy.

Endergonic

180

______ reaction releases energy.

Exergonic

181

Metabolism is a controlled burning process (_____ in chemical terms).

oxidation

182

_____ system absorbs nutrients from food.

Digestive

183

____ system brings O2 in, blows CO2 out.

Respiratory

184

______ system brings nutrients and O2 to cells, carries waste & CO2 away.

Circulatory

185

______ system rids the body of waste.

Excretory

186

The starting material for cellular energy production is ______.

glucose

187

The ultimate product of catabolism is ____, the energy currecny of the cell.

ATP

188

_______ is a three-carbon molecule that is an important intermediate in metabolism.

Pyruvic acid or Pyruvate

189

______ also has three carbons, but represents a metabolic "dead end".

Lactic acid or Lactate

190

A molecule called ______ is like a "bucket" or "shovel" for two-carbon molecules.

coenzyme A (CoA)

191

The 2 carbon molecule that is carried by CoA is an ______ group.

acetyl

192

When CoA is carrying an acetyl group, it is called _______.

acetyl-CoA

193

Protons produced by the ____ _____ are carried by FADH and NAD+.

Krebs cycle

194

Protons produced by the Krebs cycle are carried by ____ and ____.

FADH and NAD+

195

There are alos electron "buckets" which are part of the _____ _____ _____ of mitochondria.

electron transport chain

196

Two major players in metabolism are ____ and _____.

pyruvic acid (pyruvate) and lactic acid (lactate)

197

______ is a sulfur-containing molecule that acts as a carbon carrier. Think of this a "shovel" that can only hold 2 carbon "lumps of coal".

Coenzyme A (CoA)

198

Only 2 carbon units can fit into the _____ ____ "furnace".

Krebs cycle

199

These 2 cofactors are not consumed in metabolic reactions. Rather, they serve as "hydrogen buckets" carrying hydrogen atoms (H) to where they are needed.

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)

200

Cells of the human body generally prefer ____ as a carbon source.

glucose

201

The energy between carbon atoms in glucose is converted into high-energy ______ ______ of ATP.

phosphate bonds

202

If oxygen is absent or in short supply, then cellular respiration is _______.

anaerobic

203

Anaerobic metabolism of glucose is called ______.

glycolysis

204

Glycolysis occurs in the _____ and does not need mitochondria.

cytoplasm

205

In glycolysis, one glucose molecule is converted into 2 molecules of _____.

pyruvic acid (pyruvate)

206

If oxygen is plentiful, then ____ respiration can take place.

aerobic

207

Aerobic respiration yields _____ net ATP molecules per glucose molecule.

36-38

208

______ O2: anaerobic pathway only, lactic acid is formed as a by-product.

without

209

____ O2: pyruvic acid (3 carbons) is tranferred to the mitochondrion for further processing.

with

210

If oxygen is present, then the _____ is fed into the aerobic respiratory pathway.

pyruvate (with 3 carbons)

211

If oxygen is absent, then pyruvate is converted to ____, a metabolic dead end.

lactic acid

212

When lactic acid builds us as a results of anaerobic metabolism, the cell becomes more acidic and the cell's metabolism is rendered even less effective, a condition called ____ _____.

lactic acidosis

213

_____ buildup can interfere with muscle strenght during exercise.

lactic acid

214

If oxygen is absent, then the hexose (6-carbon) glucose is converted to ___ lactates and ___ carbons each.

2 lactates;
3 carbons

215

If oxygen is present, then the hexose (6-carbon) glucose is converted to __ pyruvates and ___ carbons each.

2 pyruvates;
3 carbons

216

_____ has 3 carbons.

Pyruvate

217

The steps in aerobic metabolism can only utilize 2 carbon units which, like lumps of coal, are "shoveled" into the pathway using a carrier called _____. The coal is consumed, the shovel is not.

coenzyme A (CoA)

218

The combination of a 2 carbon acetyl group and the coenzyme A "shovel" is called ______ or ____ for short.

acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA

219

Before entering the Krebs cycle, _____ loses one carbon in the form of CO2. The resulting 2 carbon molecule is attached to a carrier, making acetyl CoA.

pyruvic acid

220

As the two-carbon molecule enters the Krebs cycle, the ____ is lost and a 6 carbon molecule is formed.

CoA

221

During the Krebs cycle, the 2 carbons are lost as CO2 and the equivalent of one ATP is formed from ____ and ____. Also, hydrogens are transferred to 3 molecules of NAD+ and one molecule of FAD, making 3 NADHs and one FADH2.

ADP and phosphate

222

The 2 carbon acetate units are fed into the ____ ____, also called the _____ _____ ____ or ____ ____ (___).

Krebs cycle;
citric acid cycle;
tricarboxylic acid (TCA)

223

As the name implies, the Krebs cycle operates in a ______ fashion, adding and subtracting carbons and giving off electrons as a side-product.

circular

224

The electrons in the Krebs cycle are carried by cofactors called FADH2 and NADH so they may be used in the ____ _____ _____.

electron transport chain

225

In the Krebs cycle and in the electron transport chain, _____ such as NAD+ and FAD are used to shift electrons around.

cofactors

226

Oxygen is the ____ and _____ acceptor at the end ogf the electron transport chain.

proton and electron

227

During cellular respiration, ______ (doesn't use oxygen) gives 2 net ATP.

Glycolysis

228

During cellular respiration, _____ is fed into the system.

glucose

229

During cellular respiration, one glucose molecule makes two ____ _____ (carried by CoA) and 2CO2.

acetyl groups

230

During cellular respiration, acetyle-CoA feeds _____ _____ and makes CO2 ad cofactors.

Krebs cycle

231

During cellular respiration, _______ feed electron transport chain, "wheel" driven by H- "stream" water and APT produced.

cofactors

232

______ energy is stored energy, like a coiled spring of the energy between bonds in gunpowder.

Potential

233

______ energy is moving energy, like the jack-in-the-box that pops up or the bullet moving towards a target.

Kinetic

234

Excess glucose that is not needed for cellular metabolism is converted to glycogen and stored in the _____ and ______.

liver and muscle

235

If glucose in blood exceeds metabolic needs, then glucose is stored in a readily-available form called _____.

glycogen

236

Breakdown of proteins in skeletal muscles and other tissues releases large amounts of amino acids, The 2 carbon backbone of these amino acids can be used for production of glucose, although this is a highly inefficient process. The process is called _____ and occurs in the liver.

gluconeogenesis ("making new glucose")

237

Some amino acid 2 carbon backbones can be fed directly into the Krebs cycle. This leaves the amino group, which ends up as ____, a major component of urine.

urea

238

Some amino acids (called _____ _____ _____) cannot be made in any case and must be part of the human diet.

essential amino acids

239

_______ are glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains.

Triglycerides

240

_____ ____ is a chain of carbons.

fatty acid

241

In the disease called _____ _____, the cells cannot metabolize glucose. Instead they turn to fat stores as an energy source.

diabetes mellitus

242

Fat (lipid) is metabolized by beta oxidation. This produces ____ as a by-product so ____ is a sign of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

ketones;
ketosis

243

What are the 3 types of ketones?

bets-hydroxybuteric acid;
acetoacetic acid;
acetone

244

What are the functions of the centrosome in the cell?

organizing microtubules;
forms a mitotic spindle;
forms cilia and flagella

245

What are the functions of the cilium in the cell?

moves fluids along the cell's surface

246

What are the functions of the cytoskeleton in the cell?

provides intracellular framework

247

What are the functions of the cytosol in the cell?

transport of dissolved substances;
provides intracellular environment

248

What are the functions of the Golgi complex in the cell?

modifies chemicals received from the RER;
forms secretory vesicles;
forms lysosomes and peroxisomes

249

What are the functions of the lysosomes in the cell?

digests substances

250

What are the functions of the nucleus in the cell?

protects gene (DNA);
copies information from gene to RNA

251

What are the functions of the mitochondrion in the cell?

generate ATP

252

What are the functions of the peroxisome in the cell?

synthesizes polypeptides

253

What are the functions of the plasma membrane in the cell?

used to identify cells;
provides means for enzymatic reactions;
regulates transportation of molecules;
carries impulses for communication;
forms cell junctions

254

What are the functions of the ribosome in the cell?

synthesizes polypeptides

255

What are the functions of the rough ER in the cell?

binds up ribosomes;
synthesizes phospholipids for membranes

256

What are the functions of the secretory vesicle in the cell?

discharges proteins via exocytosis

257

What are the functions of the smooth ER in the cell?

synthesizes fats and steroids

258

What chemicals are transported through diffusion through bilayer?

oxygen;
carbon dioxide;
steroid hormone

259

What chemicals are transported through diffusion through pores / channels?

potassuim ion;
sodium ion

260

What chemicals are transported through facilitated diffusion?

glucose

261

What chemicals are transported through osmosis?

water

262

What chemicals are transported through primary active transport?

potassium ion;
sodium ion

263

What chemicals are transported through secondary active transport?

glucose;
amino acids

264

What chemicals are transported through endocytosis?

bacteria

265

What chemicals are transported through exocytosis?

digestive enzymes;
neurotransmitters

266

The electron transport chain occurs in what organelle?

mitochondrion

267

Linker proteins may join the plasma membrane to ________.

microtubules

268

The glucose concentration in blood and extracellular fluid is much higher than the glucose concentration inside the cell. Therefore, in order to move glucose into the cell, we need __________________________________.

protein carriers that mediate facilitated diffusion

269

In this process, protein carriers move a substance across the cell membrane down its concentration gradient and no energy source is needed.

facilitated diffusion