Module 11 - Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy and Physiology > Module 11 - Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 11 - Nervous System Deck (96):
1

The receptors of the nervous system are _________, receiving many types of sensations.

Sensory receptors

2

The _________ of the central nervous system is the brain.

Control center

3

Pathways into the central nervous system are called ________.

Afferent

4

Pathways out of the central nervous system are called ________.

Efferent

5

________ information is received in the internal or external environment and, through a process called transduction, is converted to a form the nervous system can use.

Sensory

6

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) is comprised of:

Cranial nerves III-XII
Spinal nerves
Ganglia
Enteric plexuses
Sensory receptors

7

The ________ comprises those effectors which are not under conscious control.

Autonomic motor system (ANS)

8

The central nervous system is comprised of:

The brain
The spinal cord

9

A ________ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS.

Ganglion

10

A _______ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS.

Nucleus

11

The walls of digestive organs have a network of neurons in an arrangement called a ________.

Plexus

12

________ are the cells that receive, process and transmit information in a point to point fashion in the nervous system.

Neurons

13

________ maintain the structural and chemical environment of the brain, and function in ways we probably don't fully appreciate.

Glial cells

14

What are the four types of glial cells?

Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal cells

15

_______ form the borders of the CNS.

HINT: forms the pia mater, A thin membrane covering the brain

HINT: with endothelial cells of capillaries, form blood brain barrier which keeps certain substances out of CNS

HINT: "Sponge up" excess ions and toxins

Astrocytes

16

_________ forms myelin sheaths which insulate nerve axons that must send information over long distances.

Oligodendrocytes

17

_______ are the brains equivalent of macrophages.

HINT: immune defense

Microglia

18

________, along with the border – forming astrocytes, make up a single layer of border cells lining the ventricles.

HINT: make cerebrospinal fluid

Ependymal cells

19

What are the 2 types of glial cells?

Satellite cells
Schwann cells

20

________ in the PNS perform the same basic functions as astrocytes in the CNS: maintenance of a favorable chemical environment and mechanical/structural support. Mostly found in ganglia, collections of nerve cell bodies in the PNS.

Satellite cells

21

_________ are found in the PNS in place of the oligodendrocytes of the CNS.

Schwann cells

22

A bundle of axons all traveling together in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Nerve

23

A bundle of axons all traveling together in the central nervous system (CNS).

Tract

24

___________: all atoms want to move from high concentration to low concentration.

Concentration forces

25

__________: positive ions want to be where there are excess negative charges. Negative ions want to be where there are excess positive charges.

Electrical forces

26

The __________ is the voltage at which the chemical and electrical forces are equal and opposite.

Equilibrium potential

27

The _________ of a neuron is maintained by leak channels.

Resting potential

28

The _________ is used to send information over long distances through axons

Action potential

29

The _________ results from the opening and closing of voltage gated channels.

Action potential

30

What are the steps in the action potential?

1. Resting potential
2. Threshold
3. Depolarization
4. Peak
5. Repolarization
6. After hyperpolarization
7. Return to resting potential

31

Action potential begins at the __________.

Trigger zone

32

A _______ is where neurons send information to other neurons or to an effector cell.

Synapse

33

When ________ binds to its receptor, the receptor changes shape and opens a pore.

Ligand

34

________ are gated channels that randomly open and close

Leakage channels

35

_________ are gated channels that open in response to the binding of a ligand (chemical) stimulus.

Ligand-gated channels

36

_________ are gated channels that open in response to mechanical stimulus.

Mechanically gated channels

37

___________ are gated channels that open in response to a voltage stimulus (change in membrane potential).

Voltage gated channels

38

Receptors for chemicals like neurotransmitters or drugs

Logan's-gated channels

39

Essential for action potentials or synapses.

Voltage gated channels

40

________ is defined as any change in the neuron which makes it more difficult to reach threshold.

Inhibition

41

________ neurotransmitter receptors cause a change in the ionic environment of the neuron.

Ionotropic

42

___________ neurotransmitter receptors cause a change in the biochemical environment of the neuron.

Metabotropic

43

Inputs such as pH of blood, body temperature, blood Ca++ levels, and outputs like increased heart rate, increased salivation, contraction of skeletal muscles etc. are all monitored by the _________ System.

Nervous

44

In the nervous system feedback loop, the light-sensitive cells of the retina in the eye would be an example of a __________ in the nervous system.

Receptor (sensory)

45

In the nervous system feedback loop, the tissue/organ that carries out a desired function is called a/an __________.

Effector (motor)

46

In the nervous system feedback loop, the spinal cord, medulla, pons, and midbrain are a few of the structures of the nervous system that are part of the _________ __________.

Control center

47

Because they bring information to the CNS, sensory pathways are _________.

Afferent

48

Because they take information from the CNS, motor pathways are ___________.

Efferent

49

The motor division of the somatic nervous system controls contraction of ________ ________.

Skeletal muscles

50

The motor division of the _________ nervous system controls glandular secretions and smooth muscle contraction.

Autonomic

51

Leakage channels have the same probability of being open (or closed), regardless of whether the neuron is generating an ________ _________.

Action potential

52

The parasympathetic and sympathetic are subdivisions of the _________ nervous system.

Autonomic

53

The brain and spinal cord are organs of the _______ ________ ________.

Central nervous system

54

A ________ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.

Ganglion

55

A ________ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the central nervous system.

Nucleus

56

__________ are the cells of the nervous system that receives, process, and send information.

Neurons

57

Ependymal cells are a type of ________ in the CNS.

Glia cell

58

Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system form __________.

Myelinated sheaths

59

Astrocytes in the central nervous system are analogous to ________ cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Satellite

60

Tracts are bundles of axons found in the _________ _________ System.

Central nervous

61

Bundles of axons in the peripheral nervous system are called __________.

Nerves

62

Voltage gated channels propagate _________ _______ along axons.

Action potentials

63

A ___________ triggers a small positive voltage change in a sensory neuron.

Stimulus

64

Depolarization of a neuron occurs when ________ channels open.

Sodium

65

The repolarizing phase is when the membrane voltage falls to a negative value, close to the equilibrium potential of ________.

Potassium

66

When the membrane potential goes below the average resting potential, _________ has occurred.

Hyperpolarization

67

Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) in a postsynaptic membrane causes the cell to become more _________.

Negative

68

Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in a postsynaptic membrane causes the cell to become more ________.

Positive

69

Ligand-gated channels would be expected to predominate neuronal ___________.

Dendrites and cell bodies

70

Voltage gated channels would be expected to predominate in neuronal _________.

Axons

71

Ligand-gates channels are generally affected by _______ and __________.

Drugs; neurotransmitters

72

What is the major role of the glial cells?

Structure and nutrition of the brain

73

Voltage gated channels are proteins that change _________ during the action potential.

Shape

74

Alpha motor neurons control contraction of ________ _________ in the somatic nervous system.

Skeletal muscles

75

When potassium channels are open in the intracellular membrane potential would be more ________.

Negative

76

When the sodium channels are open in the intracellular membrane potential would be more _________.

Positive

77

Hyperpolarization of a postsynaptic membrane is the result of an ________.

IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)

78

Depolarization of a postsynaptic membrane is the result of an _______.

EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)

79

Spatial summation is described as many EPSPs or IPSPs arriving at a similar _________.

Location

80

Temporal summation describes many EPSPs or IPSPs arriving at a similar ________.

Time

81

Opening of ligand-gated sodium channels would result in the generation of a ___________.

EPSP

82

Opening of ligand-gated potassium channels would result in the generation of a ________.

IPSP

83

Graded potential's (IPSPs and EPSPs) will travel _______ distances.

Short

84

Typical characteristics of graded potentials (IPSPs and EPSPs) would include:

1. Occur in dendrites and cell bodies
2. Ligand or mechanically gated channels
3. Longer duration
4. Shorter distance
5. Usually occurs summation

85

Typical characteristics of action potentials would include:

1. Occur at trigger zone in a long axons
2. Sodium/potassium voltage gated channels
3. Longer distances
4. Shorter duration
5. Occurs without summation (all or nothing)

86

Neurotransmitters such as aspartate and glutamate are _______ amino acids.

Unmodified

87

Neurotransmitters such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and serotonin are ________ amino acids.

Modified

88

Structurally, substance P is a __________.

Polypeptide neurotransmitter

89

At normal body temperature, nitric oxide (NO) is a ___________.

Excitatory neurotransmitter

90

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) functions to promote the flight or fight response and will _______ blood pressure.

Raise

91

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that will facilitate coordinated/smooth _________.

Movements

92

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a biogenic amine that regulates ________.

Mood

93

Acetylcholine is most often an ________ neurotransmitter.

Excitatory

94

Acetylcholine is an __________ neurotransmitter when potassium channels of the postsynaptic cell open.

Inhibitory

95

Ionotropic receptors are those that ________ and ________ channels.

Open; close

96

Metabotropic receptors change the _________ of a neuron.

Biochemical environment