Flashcards in Module 11 - Nervous System Deck (96):
The receptors of the nervous system are _________, receiving many types of sensations.
The _________ of the central nervous system is the brain.
Pathways into the central nervous system are called ________.
Pathways out of the central nervous system are called ________.
________ information is received in the internal or external environment and, through a process called transduction, is converted to a form the nervous system can use.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) is comprised of:
Cranial nerves III-XII
The ________ comprises those effectors which are not under conscious control.
Autonomic motor system (ANS)
The central nervous system is comprised of:
The spinal cord
A ________ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS.
A _______ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS.
The walls of digestive organs have a network of neurons in an arrangement called a ________.
________ are the cells that receive, process and transmit information in a point to point fashion in the nervous system.
________ maintain the structural and chemical environment of the brain, and function in ways we probably don't fully appreciate.
What are the four types of glial cells?
_______ form the borders of the CNS.
HINT: forms the pia mater, A thin membrane covering the brain
HINT: with endothelial cells of capillaries, form blood brain barrier which keeps certain substances out of CNS
HINT: "Sponge up" excess ions and toxins
_________ forms myelin sheaths which insulate nerve axons that must send information over long distances.
_______ are the brains equivalent of macrophages.
HINT: immune defense
________, along with the border – forming astrocytes, make up a single layer of border cells lining the ventricles.
HINT: make cerebrospinal fluid
What are the 2 types of glial cells?
________ in the PNS perform the same basic functions as astrocytes in the CNS: maintenance of a favorable chemical environment and mechanical/structural support. Mostly found in ganglia, collections of nerve cell bodies in the PNS.
_________ are found in the PNS in place of the oligodendrocytes of the CNS.
A bundle of axons all traveling together in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
A bundle of axons all traveling together in the central nervous system (CNS).
___________: all atoms want to move from high concentration to low concentration.
__________: positive ions want to be where there are excess negative charges. Negative ions want to be where there are excess positive charges.
The __________ is the voltage at which the chemical and electrical forces are equal and opposite.
The _________ of a neuron is maintained by leak channels.
The _________ is used to send information over long distances through axons
The _________ results from the opening and closing of voltage gated channels.
What are the steps in the action potential?
1. Resting potential
6. After hyperpolarization
7. Return to resting potential
Action potential begins at the __________.
A _______ is where neurons send information to other neurons or to an effector cell.
When ________ binds to its receptor, the receptor changes shape and opens a pore.
________ are gated channels that randomly open and close
_________ are gated channels that open in response to the binding of a ligand (chemical) stimulus.
_________ are gated channels that open in response to mechanical stimulus.
Mechanically gated channels
___________ are gated channels that open in response to a voltage stimulus (change in membrane potential).
Voltage gated channels
Receptors for chemicals like neurotransmitters or drugs
Essential for action potentials or synapses.
Voltage gated channels
________ is defined as any change in the neuron which makes it more difficult to reach threshold.
________ neurotransmitter receptors cause a change in the ionic environment of the neuron.
___________ neurotransmitter receptors cause a change in the biochemical environment of the neuron.
Inputs such as pH of blood, body temperature, blood Ca++ levels, and outputs like increased heart rate, increased salivation, contraction of skeletal muscles etc. are all monitored by the _________ System.
In the nervous system feedback loop, the light-sensitive cells of the retina in the eye would be an example of a __________ in the nervous system.
In the nervous system feedback loop, the tissue/organ that carries out a desired function is called a/an __________.
In the nervous system feedback loop, the spinal cord, medulla, pons, and midbrain are a few of the structures of the nervous system that are part of the _________ __________.
Because they bring information to the CNS, sensory pathways are _________.
Because they take information from the CNS, motor pathways are ___________.
The motor division of the somatic nervous system controls contraction of ________ ________.
The motor division of the _________ nervous system controls glandular secretions and smooth muscle contraction.
Leakage channels have the same probability of being open (or closed), regardless of whether the neuron is generating an ________ _________.
The parasympathetic and sympathetic are subdivisions of the _________ nervous system.
The brain and spinal cord are organs of the _______ ________ ________.
Central nervous system
A ________ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
A ________ is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the central nervous system.
__________ are the cells of the nervous system that receives, process, and send information.
Ependymal cells are a type of ________ in the CNS.
Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system form __________.
Astrocytes in the central nervous system are analogous to ________ cells in the peripheral nervous system.
Tracts are bundles of axons found in the _________ _________ System.
Bundles of axons in the peripheral nervous system are called __________.
Voltage gated channels propagate _________ _______ along axons.
A ___________ triggers a small positive voltage change in a sensory neuron.
Depolarization of a neuron occurs when ________ channels open.
The repolarizing phase is when the membrane voltage falls to a negative value, close to the equilibrium potential of ________.
When the membrane potential goes below the average resting potential, _________ has occurred.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) in a postsynaptic membrane causes the cell to become more _________.
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in a postsynaptic membrane causes the cell to become more ________.
Ligand-gated channels would be expected to predominate neuronal ___________.
Dendrites and cell bodies
Voltage gated channels would be expected to predominate in neuronal _________.
Ligand-gates channels are generally affected by _______ and __________.
What is the major role of the glial cells?
Structure and nutrition of the brain
Voltage gated channels are proteins that change _________ during the action potential.
Alpha motor neurons control contraction of ________ _________ in the somatic nervous system.
When potassium channels are open in the intracellular membrane potential would be more ________.
When the sodium channels are open in the intracellular membrane potential would be more _________.
Hyperpolarization of a postsynaptic membrane is the result of an ________.
IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)
Depolarization of a postsynaptic membrane is the result of an _______.
EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)
Spatial summation is described as many EPSPs or IPSPs arriving at a similar _________.
Temporal summation describes many EPSPs or IPSPs arriving at a similar ________.
Opening of ligand-gated sodium channels would result in the generation of a ___________.
Opening of ligand-gated potassium channels would result in the generation of a ________.
Graded potential's (IPSPs and EPSPs) will travel _______ distances.
Typical characteristics of graded potentials (IPSPs and EPSPs) would include:
1. Occur in dendrites and cell bodies
2. Ligand or mechanically gated channels
3. Longer duration
4. Shorter distance
5. Usually occurs summation
Typical characteristics of action potentials would include:
1. Occur at trigger zone in a long axons
2. Sodium/potassium voltage gated channels
3. Longer distances
4. Shorter duration
5. Occurs without summation (all or nothing)
Neurotransmitters such as aspartate and glutamate are _______ amino acids.
Neurotransmitters such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and serotonin are ________ amino acids.
Structurally, substance P is a __________.
At normal body temperature, nitric oxide (NO) is a ___________.
Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) functions to promote the flight or fight response and will _______ blood pressure.
Dopamine is a biogenic amine that will facilitate coordinated/smooth _________.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a biogenic amine that regulates ________.
Acetylcholine is most often an ________ neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholine is an __________ neurotransmitter when potassium channels of the postsynaptic cell open.
Ionotropic receptors are those that ________ and ________ channels.