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Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (188):
1

The study of the structure of the human body.

Anatomy

2

The study of the function of the human body.

Physiology

3

The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes.

Homeostatis

4

Which subdivision of anatomy studies organism development from conception to the eighth week of gestation?

Embryology

5

Which subdivision of anatomy studies all stages of development?

Developmental Biology

6

Which subdivision of anatomy studies cell structure and function?

Cell Biology

7

Which subdivision of anatomy studies microscopic structure of tissues?

Histology

8

Which subdivision of anatomy studies surface markings of the body and is observed through visualization and palpitation (perception by touch)?

Surface Anatomy

9

Which subdivision of anatomy studies structures viewed without a microscope?

Gross Anatomy

10

Which subdivision of anatomy studies the structure of specific systems?

Systemic Anatomy

11

Which subdivision of anatomy studies specific regions of the body?

Regional Anatomy

12

Which subdivision of anatomy studies body structures visualized with x-ray, CT, or MRI?

Radiographic Anatomy

13

Which subdivision of anatomy studies structural changes with disease?

Pathological Anatomy

14

Which subdivision of physiology studies functional properties of nerve cells?

Neurophysiology

15

Which subdivision of physiology studies hormones and how they control body functions?

Endocrinology

16

Which subdivision of physiology studies function of the heart and blood vessels?

Cardiovascular Physiology

17

Which subdivision of physiology studies how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents?

Immunology

18

Which subdivision of physiology studies functions of the air passageways and lungs?

Respiratory Physiology

19

Which subdivision of physiology studies functions of the kidneys?

Renal Physiology

20

Which subdivision of physiology studies changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity?

Exercise Physiology

21

Which subdivision of physiology studies functional changes associated with disease and aging?

Pathophysiology

22

What are the levels or organization from the smallest to the largest?

Chemical (atomic, molecular), cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism

23

Which system protects the body, helps regulate body temperature, eliminates some wastes, helps make vitamin D, detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold?

Integumentary System (Skin)

24

Which system supports and protects the body, provides a surface area for muscle attachments, aids body movements, houses cells that produce blood cells, stores minerals and lipids (fats)?

Skeletal System

25

Which system produces body movements, such as walking, stabilizes body position (posture), generates heat?

Muscular System

26

Which system generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities, detects changes in the body's internal and external environments, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions?

Nervous System

27

Which system regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in the blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ?

Endocrine System

28

Which system pumps blood through blood vessels, blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids, blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels?

Cardiovascular System

29

Which system returns proteins and fluid to blood, carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood, includes structures where lymphocytes (type of white blood cell) that protects against disease-causing microbes mature and proliferate?

Lymphatic System

30

Which system transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air, helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids, air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds?

Respiratory System

31

Which system achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients and water, eliminates solid wastes?

Digestive System

32

Which system produces, stores, and eliminates urine, eliminates waste and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood, helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids, maintains body's mineral balance, helps regulate production of red blood cells?

Urinary System

33

Which system includes the Gonads (ovaries and testes) which produces gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes? This is the only system which is completely different between the 2 genders (male and female). For this reason, differences in these 2 systems are called the primary sexual characteristics.

Reproductive System

34

Small changes in the balance of an organism, at any level, can cause major problems, a process called __________.

Disease

35

Describe the Human Anatomical Position.

Subject stands erect facing the observer with head level, eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor and directed forward, arms down at the side, palms facing forward

36

What is the Anatomical Terminology for head?

Cephalic

37

What is the Anatomical Terminology for skull?

Cranial

38

What is the Anatomical Terminology for the base of the skull?

Occipital

39

What is the Anatomical Terminology for face?

Facial

40

What is the Anatomical Terminology for forehead?

Frontal

41

What is the Anatomical Terminology for temple?

Temporal

42

What is the Anatomical Terminology for eye?

Orbital; Ocular

43

What is the Anatomical Terminology for ear?

Otic

44

What is the Anatomical Terminology for cheek?

Buccal

45

What is the Anatomical Terminology for nose?

Nasal

46

What is the Anatomical Terminology for mouth?

Oral

47

What is the Anatomical Terminology for chin?

Mental

48

What is the Anatomical Terminology for neck?

Cervical

49

What is the Anatomical Terminology for spinal column?

Vertebral

50

What is the Anatomical Terminology for chest?

Thoracic

51

What is the Anatomical Terminology for breastbone?

Sternal

52

What is the Anatomical Terminology for breast?

Mammary

53

What is the Anatomical Terminology for shoulder blade?

Scapular

54

What is the Anatomical Terminology for back?

Dorsal

55

What is the Anatomical Terminology for abdomen?

Abdominal

56

What is the Anatomical Terminology for navel?

Umbilical

57

What is the Anatomical Terminology for hip?

Coxal

58

What is the Anatomical Terminology for loin?

Lumbar

59

What is the Anatomical Terminology for between hips?

Sacral

60

What is the Anatomical Terminology for pelvis?

Pelvic

61

What is the Anatomical Terminology for groin?

Inguinal

62

What is the Anatomical Terminology for pubis?

Pubic

63

What is the Anatomical Terminology for buttock?

Gluteal

64

What is the Anatomical Terminology for armpit?

Axillary

65

What is the Anatomical Terminology for arm?

Brachial

66

What is the Anatomical Terminology for front of elbow?

Antecubital

67

What is the Anatomical Terminology for back of elbow?

Olecranal; Cubital

68

What is the Anatomical Terminology for forearm?

Antebrachial

69

What is the Anatomical Terminology for wrist?

Carpal

70

What is the Anatomical Terminology for hand?

Manual

71

What is the Anatomical Terminology for thumb?

Pollux

72

What is the Anatomical Terminology for palm?

Palmar; Volar

73

What is the Anatomical Terminology for back of hand?

Dorsum

74

What is the Anatomical Terminology for fingers?

Digital; Phalangeal

75

What is the Anatomical Terminology for thigh?

Femoral

76

What is the Anatomical Terminology for anterior surface of the knee?

Patellar

77

What is the Anatomical Terminology for posterior surface of the knee?

Popliteal

78

What is the Anatomical Terminology for leg?

Crural

79

What is the Anatomical Terminology for calf?

Sural

80

What is the Anatomical Terminology for foot?

Pedal

81

/What is the Anatomical Terminology for ankle?

Tarsal

82

What is the Anatomical Terminology for sole?

Plantar

83

What is the Anatomical Terminology for top of foot?

Dorsum

84

What is the Anatomical Terminology for heel?

Calcaneal

85

What is the Anatomical Terminology for toes?

Digital; Phalangeal

86

What is the Anatomical Terminology for great toe?

Hallux

87

_________ means toward the surface.

Superficial

88

_______ means toward the core.

Deep

89

Most organs inside cavities are covered with a double-layered membrane. ________ is the membrane surface closest to the wall cavity.

Parietal

90

Most organs inside cavities are covered with a double-layered membrane. _________ is the membrane surface closest to the organ inside the cavity.

Visceral

91

Toward the head, top, or above

Superior

92

Away from the head, bottom, or below

Inferior

93

Toward the midline

Medial

94

Away from the midline

Lateral

95

Closer to the point of origin or attachment

Proximal

96

Further away from the point of origin or attachment

Distal

97

Toward the front

Anterior; Ventral

98

Toward the back

Posterior; Dorsal

99

Same side of the midline

Ipsilateral

100

Opposite side of the midline

Contralateral

101

Plane dividing medial from lateral

Sagittal

102

Plane dividing superior from inferior

Transverse; Horizontal

103

Plane dividing anterior from posterior

Frontal; Coronal

104

Plane through the midline (dividing the body into 2 equal, mirror-image halves).

Midsagittal

105

Plane parallel to sagittal but not through the midline

Parasagittal

106

An ________ plane is not one of the 3 cardinal planes. It is any plane or section that doesn't fit the cardinal descriptions.

Oblique

107

Which cavity is formed by cranial bones and contains the brain?

Cranial Cavity

108

Which cavity is formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves?

Vertebral Canal

109

Which cavity contains the pleural and pericardial cavities and the mediastinum? (Also known as the chest cavity)

Thoracic Cavity

110

Which cavity is a potential space between the layers of the pleura that surrounds a lung?

Pleural Cavity

111

Which cavity is a potential space between the layers of the pericardium that surrounds the heart?

Pericardial Cavity

112

Which cavity is the central portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels?

Mediastinum

113

Which cavity is subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities?

Abdominopelvic Cavity

114

Which cavity contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine? The serous membrane of this cavity is the peritoneum.

Abdominal Cavity

115

Which cavity contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction?

Pelvic Cavity

116

This divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.

Diaphragm

117

There are 2 main body cavities. Which one includes the cranial and vertebral cavities?

Dorsal

118

There are 2 main body cavities. Which one includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?

Ventral

119

The ventral cavity is the adult derivative of an embryonic cavity called the ________.

Coelom (pronounced "seal-um")

120

What are the 4 abdominopelvic quadrants and their abbreviations?

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ);
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ);
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ);
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

121

There are 9 abdominopelvic regions. Which one is "under the ribs"?

Hypochondriac Region (right and left)

122

There are 9 abdominopelvic regions. Which one is "on top of the stomach"?

Epigastric Region

123

There are 9 abdominopelvic regions. Which one is "lower back"?

Lumbar Region (right and left)

124

There are 9 abdominopelvic regions. Which one is centered on the umbilicus?

Umbilical Region

125

There are 9 abdominopelvic regions. Which one is "groin"?

Inguinal Region (right and left); also called iliac "flank" region

126

There are 9 abdominopelvic regions. Which one is also called the pubic region?

Hypogastric Region

127

The liver and gallbladder are found in which quadrant?

RUQ

128

The stomach, spleen, and left kidney are found in which quadrant?

LUQ

129

The cecum (where small intestine meets large intestine) and appendix are found in which quadrant?

RLQ

130

The left ovary (in women) is found in which quadrant?

LLQ

131

A _________ is a technique used to visualize structures.

Modality

132

In the Homeostasis feedback loop, what is the receptors job?

Monitors controlled condition

133

In the Homeostasis feedback loop, what is the control center's job?

Receives input and provides output

134

In the Homeostasis feedback loop, what is the effectors job?

Bring about changes in controlled condition

135

If the response reverses the stimulus, a system is operating by _________ feedback.

Negative

136

Negative feedback loops are by far the most common kind of homeostatic circuit because the are ____________; they cannot spin out of control if they are over-stimulated.

self-controlling

137

If the response enhances or intensifies the stimulus, a system is operating by _________ feedback.

Positive

138

Positive feedback loops are rarely used in the human body because they cannot be controlled. They on;y shut down when__________________________.

the system is depleted or the problem is corrected

139

What are positive feedback characteristics?

Strengthen or reinforce a change;
Action continues until it is interrupted;
Reinforces conditions that do not happen very often

140

What are negative feedback characteristics?

Reverses a change in a controlled condition;
Action stops automatically when setpoint is reached;
Regulate conditions that remain fairly stable over long periods

141

What are 3 examples of positive feedback?

Blood clotting;
Childbirth;
Severe blood loss

142

What are 3 examples of negative feedback?

Body temperature;
Blood glucose;
many, many others

143

What results from a disruption in Homeostasis?

Disease

144

High blood pressure

Hypertension

145

Abnormal setpoint for lipids (fats)

Dyslipidemia

146

High body weight relative to height

Obesity

147

Abnormal blood sugar setpoint

Diabetes mellitus

148

_____ result from the health care provider observing the patient.

Signs

149

______ result from an internal state or "feeling" and therefore can only be relayed by the patient.

Symptoms

150

A _____ is a group of signs and/or symptoms that commonly occur together.

Syndrome

151

Diseases grouped under the category of _________, cause signs and symptoms of disease because of external factors: a bacterium, a virus, a fungus, or a parasite.

Infectious Disease

152

_______ infections occur in individuals here and there, with no evidence of widespread incidence in a population.

Sporadic

153

_______ infections are more common in one geographical area than elsewhere, but occur at low to moderate levels in that area.

Endemic

154

_______ infections occur at a higher than normal level in a population.

Epidemic

155

______ infections occur worldwide.

Pandemic

156

If the person transmitting the disease is within 1 meter of the person receiving the disease, we call it ________ transmission.

Contact

157

If the infection is carried through food, water, or bodily fluids, it is ________ ________ transmission.

Common vehicle

158

If the infectious agent is carried on droplets that travel more than 1 meter, it is called ________ transmission.

Airborne

159

If the disease is transmitted by a "third party" (insect bite, bat, skunk for example) then the animal that transmits the disease is called a ________.

Vector

160

People can be vectors, and if they transmit the disease but do not appear to be ill, they are called ________.

Carriers

161

Many patients have infectious diseases, of they have disease which have lowered their ability to fight off invading infectious illness. They are ___________.

Immunocompromised

162

An infectious disease acquired in a hospital setting is called _________.

Nosocomial

163

Nosocomial infections can be _______ (from the external environment) or ________ (coming from organisms that the patient normally has present, but that have not previously caused disease).

Exogenous;
Endogenous

164

Multiply inches by ______ to find centimeters.

2.54

165

Multiply miles by ______ to find kilometers.

1.61

166

Multiply ounces by ______ to find grams.

28.35

167

Multiply pounds by ______ to find kilograms.

0.45

168

Multiply fluid ounces by _______ to find milliliters.

29.57

169

Multiply feet by _____ to find centimeters.

30.48

170

Multiply yards by _______ to find meters.

0.91

171

Multiply tons by ______ to find metric ton.

0.91

172

Multiply pints by ______ to find liters.

0.47

173

Multiply quarts by _______ to find liters.

0.95

174

Multiply gallons by _______ to find liters.

3.79

175

Multiply millimeters by _____ to find inches.

0.04

176

Multiply centimeters by _____ to find inches.

0.39

177

Multiply meters by ______ to find feet.

3.28

178

Multiply kilometers by _____ to find miles.

0.62

179

Multiply liters by ______ to find quarts.

1.06

180

Multiply cubic meters by ______ to find cubic feet.

35.32

181

Multiply grams by ______ to find ounces.

0.035

182

Multiply kilograms by ______ to find pounds.

2.21

183

What do we do if we don't have a direct conversion factor?

A problem-solving technique that converts from one unit to another by using conversion factors is called "Dimensional Analysis".

184

What are the 4 significant figures rules?

1. All non zero numbers are always significant.
2. Leading zeros are never significant.
3. Confined zeros are always significant
4. Trailing zeros are only significant if the number contains a decimal point.

185

What is the significant figures rule when multiplying or dividing?

Your answer is limited to the least number of significant figures in the problem.

186

The kidneys lie posterior to the peritoneal membrane, which is why they are termed retroperitoneal organs. The peritoneal membrane covers the intestines and other organs of the abdominal cavity.

The layer of the peritoneal membrane farthest from the intestines, and closest to the kidneys, is the ______________ layer. (This layer is not associated with or attached to the kidneys; it's just anatomically closer.)

Parietal

187

The forearm and the leg both have paired bones. In the anatomical position, the most laterally placed of each of these pairs are the:
A. humerus and femur
B. humerus and tibia
C. radius and fibula
D. ulna and fibula
E. ulna and tibia

C. radius and filbula

188

A disease state which involves alterations in the homeostatic systems controlling blood pressure, body fat, blood lipids, and hormonal signaling would be classified as a/an:

autoimmune disease