Module 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 5 Deck (100):
1

The ______ is bounded by a double membrane and contains the materials needed to control all parts of the cell.

nucleus

2

The genetic material - ________ and 3 forms of ________ - are all made in the nucleus.

deoxuribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)

3

What are the functions of the nucleus?

- Storage of the cell's genetic material
- Synthesis of the protein coding material

4

The _____ is a ribosome factory.

nucleolus

5

DNA can be used to make a copy of itself. This process is called __________.

replication

6

The process by which DNA makes RNA is called _______. The basic structure of DNA and RNA are the same so this refers to copying from on form to another in the same language.

transcription

7

RNA to protein is called ________. This process is a converting from one "language" to another.

translation

8

____ makes _____ makes _____.

DNA - RNA - protein

9

Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material. These carry the code for an enzyme called _________ that converts RNA to DNA.

reverse transcriptase

10

_______ uses RNA as a template to make DNA. After that step, the usual sequence (DNA - RNA - protein) is followed.

Reverse transcriptase

11

DNA is visible through the light microscope only when it is packaged into ______ during cell division.

chromosomes

12

______: unspooled, "loose" DNA strands.

chromatin

13

The DNA molecule is a double helix; the two strands are _____, which means that one goes up while the other goes down.

antiparallel

14

We define up and down on the DNA molecule by the numbering of carbons on the sugar part of the backbone. The _____ is where we start reading, and where the enzymes that work on the DNA start their work. The ______ is where everything ends up.

5' carbon;
3' end

15

_____ is the most stable of molecules, almost as stable as a rock.

DNA

16

_____ exists just long enough to make proteins, then it is destroyed.

RNA

17

________ is very unstable. It allows for transcriptional control of protein production. It carries the coded message.

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

18

_______ is more stable. With proteins, it forms ribosomes; small and large subunits.

RIbosomal RNA (rRNA)

19

______ is more stable. It is the "truck" to bring amino acids to the growing protein strand.

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

20

The rRNA components of the ribosome are (mostly) made in a structure within the nucleus called a _______.

nucleolus

21

In the cytoplasm, rRNA and proteins are assembled into the _______.

ribosome

22

Ribosomes exist as either ________ or as part of the ________. Either way, they operate as translation factories.

free ribosomes;
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

23

_____ complexes with proteins to form the ribosome.

rRNA

24

On the ribosome, the _____ message is read and the proteins are assembled.

mRNA

25

_____ molecules carry the amino acids to the ribosome to be incorporated into proteins.

tRNA

26

A _____ is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.

gene

27

The final edited version of the RNA made from the DNA template is called ______ because it carries the message (instructions for making proteins).

messenger RNA (mRNA)

28

Messenger RNA leaves the nucleus through _____ to the cytoplasm, where the protein factories - ribosomes - read the mRNA message and translates it to a particular sequence of amino acids in the growing protein (primary structure).

nuclear pores

29

The process of RNA synthesis begins as the DNA double helix is opened up. Only one DNA strand is read. It is called the ______, since is carried the genetic code.

coding strand

30

_____ is the expressed region of DNA (made into proteins).

Exon

31

_____ is the intervening region of DNA (not made into proteins).

Intron

32

The ______ is the portion of the DNA that is expressed, or made into protein.

exon

33

The _____ is the portion of the DNA that is not made into protein and must be edited out.

Intron

34

In order to create mRNA, the introns must be sliced out and the exons stitched together, This is accomplished by an organelle called the _______, which is made up of several small nuclear ribonucleoprotein pareticles, or snRNP.

spliceosome

35

A structure called a ____ is formed, the intron is cut out, and the ends of the exon are stitched together.

lariat

36

Mutations, as you might expect, can mess up the process of splicing. This has been shown for the blood disorder called ________.

Beta thalassemia

37

_______ is a protein that makes up half of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying protein of red blood cells.

Beta-globin

38

Abnormal splicing of the _______ gene produces an abnormally short globin mRNA.

beta globin

39

RNA is ____ into protein.

translated

40

______ changes nucleic acid "language" (mRNA) to amino acid "language" (protein).

Translation

41

The _____ polymer is a coded message containing the adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U).

mRNA

42

The ____ polymer is the product of translation: 20 different types of amino acids strung together in a specific order make up the protein's primary structure.

protein

43

Protein synthesis occurs through the action of a macromolecule machine called a _______.

ribosome

44

______ make proteins that the cell needs.

Free ribosomes

45

The _____, ____, and _______ together make proteins for export, to be embedded in the cell membrane, or to recycle proteins that are malformed.

ribosomes, RER, and Golgi

46

______ are usually, but not always, found on the cell surface.

Glycoproteins

47

________ carries the coded message from the nucleus to the ribosome.

Messenger RNA

48

The ribosome is made up of _____ and ______.

ribosomal RNA and proteins

49

Each tRNA has a unique _____ (a set of 3 ribonucleotides which will bind to the mRNA).

anticodon

50

The anticodon is paired with a specific amino acids which binds to an _______.

acceptor arm

51

What are the steps for translation?

1. Ribosome attaches to mRNA.
2. AUG start codon matched up to tRNA - methionine.
3. Next tRNA-amino acid arrives.
4. Peptide bond forms.
5. Ribosome shifts 3 mRNA bases.
6. Polypeptide chain grows.
7. Ribosome reaches stop codon; polypeptide released

52

Three base pairings on mRNA coding for an amino acid are called a ______.

codon

53

Transfer RNAs contain an ______ at one end of the molecule that lines up with and complements the mRNA codon.

anticodon

54

The 3 base sequence representing each amino acid is called the _______.

genetic code

55

Because there are 64 combinations of bases for 20 amino acids, the genetic code is called _______, meaning there are more possible codes than there are amino acids to encode.

degenerate

56

Protein synthesis ends with either _____, ______, or ______. These are called stop codons.

UAA, UAG, UGA

57

UAA is called _____.

ochre

58

UGA is called ______.

umber

59

UAG is called _____.

amber

60

A _____ is a change in the sequence of DNA which changes the mRNA made from the coding strand.

.gene polymorphism

61

If the change in the DNA (and mRNA) results in a change in the amino acid sequence, which then changes the function if the resulting protein, then the change is called a ______.

mutation

62

If we introduce a mutation after the start codon, that either adds or subtracts a base, the entire frame is shifted so that all amino acids downstream from the mutation are wrong. This is called a _________.

frameshift mutation

63

Frameshift mutations are not the only kind. Sometimes a single base is changed, which does not shift the reading frame. This is called a ________.

point mutation

64

The mutation that produces the disease, sickle-cell anemia is a ________.

point mutation

65

After replicating their DNA in preparation for cell division, chromosomes consist of two identical ______.

chromatids

66

Each _____ is a single, continuous DNA molecule.

chromatid

67

______: two identical halves of the chromosome, joined at the centromere.

Chromatid

68

______: DNA strand.

Chromatin

69

_______: visible packaging of DNA and histones into X-shaped structures.

Chromasomes

70

______ carry a lot of positive charges to screen of negative energy that DNA gives off.

Histones

71

Cells which are dividing go through a series of steps that is called the _______.

cell cycle

72

The actual process of cell division is called _____ or ______.

mitosis or M phase

73

After mitosis, a dividing cell enters a _____ called G1. G1 takes 8-10 hours to complete.

first growth phase

74

If a cell becomes _______ (i.e. is in a resting state), or if it is incapable of cell division, it is "parked" in a part of the cell cycle called G0.

quiescent

75

During the S phase, the cell's DNA is _____ so that it can be divided equally between the daughter cells in mitosis. This process takes about 8 hours.

replicated

76

After S phase, cells enter the _____ or ______ called G2. During G2, the cell finalizes its preparations for mitosis. After 4-6 hours of G2, the cell enters M phase, which completes the cycle.

second growth or gap phase

77

________, the copying of all the cell's DNA molecules, occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle.

DNA replication

78

The 2 strands of the DNA double helix are ______.

anti-parallel

79

As DNA is replicated, 2 different strategies are used:

1. leading strand built continuously 5' ---> 3'
2. lagging strand uses Okazaki frangments to build short segments which are then stitched together.

80

____ is the term for all parts of the cell cycle except mitosis: G0, G1, S, and G2.

Interphase

81

During interphase, the DNA is loosely packed so that it may be transcribed to RNA as needed. In this form, it is called ______.

chromatin

82

Mitosis has 4 parts: ____, _____, _____, and ______.

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

83

In the last step in mitosis, the cells must physically divide into 2 daughter cells. This physical division is called ________.

cytokinesis

84

While all parts of interphase involve preparation for, or recovery from, mitosis, the first phase of mitosis that involves an obvious, observable visual change in the cell is ______.

prophase

85

The ______, which grows out of the chromosome is made up of the microtubules used to move chromosomes.

mitotic spindle

86

_____, as the name implies, is the middle phase of mitosis, in which everything in the parent cell lines up in the middle.

Metaphase

87

Metaphase is the stage of mitosis used to create a _____, a picture of the chromosomes that is used (for example) to diagnose disorders with a change in the number of chromosomes. Trisomy 21, or Down syndrome is an exmaple.

karyotype

88

_____ is the stage of mitosis where the contents of the 2 daughter cells move backwards, away from each other.

anaphase

89

During _____, mitosis is completed.

telophase

90

A _____ appears in the middle of the parent cell, and as the furrow deepens, the cell is split into 2 daughter cells.

cleavage furrow

91

The daughter cells move apart in a process called ______.

cytokinesis

92

______ are those that can make new little humans.

Germ cells

93

To evenly divide up the replicated amount of DNA between gametes, a slightly different mechanism of cell division is needed. This is called ______.

meiosis

94

One major advantage to sex is that it provides the opportunity for _____ during meiosis. This scrambles the genetic material so that each sibling, even in a large family, has a different complement of DNA.

crossing over

95

_____ creates 2 daughter cells that are identical to the "parent".

Mitosis

96

______ halves the DNA content in Meiosis I and then Meiosis II resembles mitosis.

Meiosis

97

In Mendelian terminology, the variations of these genes are called ______.

alleles

98

_______ are those where inheriting one copy (from mom or dad) will give you a condition or disease.

Dominant alleles

99

______ are those where inheriting one copy makes you a carrier, and inheriting 2 copies will give you a condition or disesase.

Recessive alleles

100

_______ are used to analyze Mendelian genetics.

Punnett squares