Flashcards in Module 9 Deck (171):
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
4. mineral homeostasis
6. fat (energy) storage
The _______ is a bone stem cell and is the precursor to other bone cell types.
_______ are dividing cells. They are responsible for laying down the components of bone; we can distinguish them from other cells which all start with "osteo-" by remembering that they are Bone Building Blasts.
Within spaces inside of bone, _______ ("bone cells") maintain bone integrity.
Bone-Chewing _______ constantly tunnel through bone, dissolving the bone matrix as they go.
What are the 4 cell types found in bone?
Osteoblast and osteoclast activity is regulated by ______.
What are the 2 components of bone?
inorganic and organic
The inorganic portion of bone is primarily a mineral called ________, a compound of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl groups.
Bone is a composite material. The inorganic portion is ______. The organic portion is _______.
inorganic = mineralized;
organic = protein
If the bone has too much mineral, it becomes brittle and fractures easily. This happens in the disease _______, or "brittle bone disease".
If the bone has too much collagen, bones are soft and pliable, as in children with ______ or adults with _____.
What are the 2 main TYPES of bone?
spongy and compact
______ is, as the name suggests, compact. This hard, dense tissue provides structural support. It accounts for 80% of the total bone mass.
The basic structural unit of compact bone is the _____.
Each osteon consists of a series of concentric rings called ______. In the center of this structure is a canal that runs the length of the bone, carrying blood and lymphatic vessels.
lamellae (latin: thin plate)
Small spaces between the lamellae contain the osteocytes. Small channels (________) join adjacent lacunae.
canaliculi (latin: small canals)
______ (Volkman canals) run radially in long bones to join adjacent central canals.
______ is found in the marrow cavity of long bones like the femur and humerus.
_____ bone marrow is where blood cells are made.
_____ bone marrow is where fat is stored as energy.
Spongy bone is made up of _______.
trabeculae (latin: "little roof beam")
The skeletal system is not all compact bone or spongy bone. Much of the skeleton is made up of ______.
_______ gets its name from its resemblance to glass, shiny and translucent. It has a great deal of ground substance with no apparent structure, and the living cells that lay down cartilage are found in little spaces, again called lacunae, here and there amongst the glassy ground substance.
______ is, of course, more fibrous in appearance and structure. The ground substance has collagen fibers running through it. This is found in the disks between vertebrae; in the pubic symphysis where 2 halves of the pelvis are joined; and in the menisci of joints.
______ has elastin fibers in place of the collagen fibers found in fibrocartilage, but otherwise, it has a similar structure. It is found in the ear and epiglottis, 2 structures that need to be flexible and snap back into shape when moved and released.
What are the 3 types of cartilage found in the skeletal system?
Dense regular connective tissue is represented in the skeletal system by ______, band-like structures that strap one bone to another.
A very important dense irregular connective tissue in the skeletal system is the _______, a thin membrane that surrounds all bones.
The _______ lines the medullary cavity.
_____ bones are longer than they are wide.
Either end of the long bone has an ______; these are the knobby ends of the bone and form joint surfaces.
epiphysis (epi- "on top of", -physis "nature")
In the middle of the long bone is the _____. This is the shaft of the long bone.
diaphysis (dia- "through", -physis "nature")
Between the epiphysis and diaphysis is a transition in the middle, or ______.
`The specialized region inside the epiphysis is the _________. This is the site of bone growth as these long bones grow during development.
In adults, who are done growing in height, the remnant of the epiphyseal plate is seen as the _______. It is often possible to see this as a landmark in conventional x-rays.
The growth of long bones at the epiphyseal plate, and the growth of bones in many other places, occurs through _______. This uses a cartilage "model" to shape the bone; the cartilage is eventually replaced with compact or spongy bone.
endochondral bone formation
In fetuses and very young children, many of the future bones are completely cartilaginous. At some point, a _______ appears in the center of the forming bone, where the diaphysis will be.
primary ossification center
Later in life, a ________ will develop near the joint surface.
secondary ossification center
Endochondral bone formation is one strategy. The other strategy used to form bone is _________.
intramembranous bone formation
In the intramembranous bone formation strategy, instead of a primary and secondary ossification center in the middle and ends of the bone, there are multiple ______ that start as islands and then spread outward. As they spread, they form spongy bone.
________ make bone. They lay down the organic and inorganic extracellular matrix of the bone. They are bone Builders.
______ break bone into pieces. They are bone Chewers.
_______ is released from a set of small, pea-shaped glands next to the thyroid. This hormone increases osteoclastic activity.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
______ is made by parafollicular cells (C cells) in the thyroid gland. It is released when calcium is high, and inhibits osteoclasts.
______ is hormonally active Vitamin D. It is released from the kidneys when blood calcium is too low. It works in the digestive system to increase the absorption of calcium from foods.
What are the 2 D vitamins?
Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol);
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
The elderly may have very low levels of hGH and tend to have problems with calcium absorption and homeostasis. This may result in the disease _____, which weakens bones.
The ______ consists of those bones that are in the center of the body, from head to coccyx. That is - the skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum.
The _______ is bones that form the structure of the upper and lower extremities. Thus, the bones of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand, but we include the scapula and clavicle because these stabilize the shoulder girdle. Also, the bones of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot. The pelvis is part of the lower extremity, as well, because it stabilizes the lower extremity and forms the socket of the hip joint.
_____ are about as long as they are wide. They are shaped like a wooden block or a lego. They include the carpal bones of the wrist and the tarsal bones of the ankle.
______ are the bone equivalent of the squamous cells; they are wide and thin. The sternum is an example.
_____ are a garbage category for bones that don't have any definable shape. An example would be the vertebrae.
A _____ is a small, round, flat bone that can arise as the result of mechanical stress or trauma to muscle. The only example is the patella.
orbit of the eye
interior upper ceiling of the nasal sinuses
a horseshoe-shaped, "floating" bone in the neck
small bone that forms the bridge of the nose
forms the roof of the mouth (hard palate)
In order for blood vessels to pass in and out of the skull, it is necessary to have large and small holes in the skull. These holes are called _______. There are also shallow depressions called ________.
holes = foramina (latin: "hole");
depressions = fossae (latin: "ditch")
In the nasal sinuses, nerves carrying smell information pass through _____ in the sponge-like _______.
In the sphenoid bone, the ______ forms a hole for the optic nerve to pass from the eye to the brain.
The ______ forms a ditch that holds the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
An oval-shaped hole (______) allows the passage of several nerves and blood vessels.
The _____ of the occipital bone, a huge hole allows the spinal cord to exit the skull.
_____ are stacked in a _____ which runs the length of the back. They are named by region and then numbered, from superior to inferior.
cervix (7 cervical vertebrae)
thorax (12 thoracic vertebrae)
lumbar (5 lumbar vertebrae)
sacral (2 sacral vertebrae, fused)
The largest part of a vertebrae is the _____.
A joint between 2 adjacent bodies is filled with a disk of fibrocartilage that has a soft center, like a jelly donut. This is called the _______.
Two _____ extend laterally; a ____ connects each of these to the body.
Along the midline, there is a ______ which protrudes posteriorly. This is joined to the transverse processes by ______.
Taken together, the medial surfaces of the body, processes, pedicles and laminae form a large hole called the ______ that allows passage of the spinal cord.
Your whole world is in your skull, and it's the first cervical vertebrae (C1) that holds the whole world up. For this reason, C1 is called the _____.
The joint between the occipital bone of skull and the atlas is called the ________. This joint allows us to nod.
The C2 vertebrae has the special name of _____. This articulates (forms a joint) with the atlas that allows for head rotation.
A ______ attached to the atlas wraps around a "tooth" (____) on C2.
One unique feature of cervical vertebrae is that the posteriorly-projecting spinous process (the one on the midline) is ______, that is, it has a "forked tongue".
The last of the cervical vertebrae, C7, is called ______ because it's prominent.
The 12 ribs make joint with the 12 thoracic vertebrae. There are 2 points at which each rib touches a vertebrae: the _____ of a vertebrae touches the _____ of a rib, and the body of a vertebrae touches the head of a rib.
Vertebrae makes joints with each other at _____ and ______.
superior articular facets
Ribs 1-7 are termed ____ because they connect with the ____ on the anterior surface of the thorax.
The connection between true ribs and the sternum is _____, a type of hyaline cartilage.
Ribs 8-10 are called _____ because they use rib 7 to articulate with the sternum, rather than making that connection directly.
Ribs 11-12 are also false ribs and more specifically ____ because they "float"; there is no anterior connection to any other structure.
socket for the head of the humerus
The longest and thickest bone of the upper extremity is the ______.
The bones of the forearm, the ____ and _____, articulate with the distal humerus at the elbow joint
radius and ulna
The bones of the wrist are called _____.
The _____ are named because they line up like Roman soldiers in a phalanx formation.
What are the 3 bones of the pelvis?
large, flat, curved, flared bone of the pelvis
The 2 parts of the pelvis form a large socket for the head of the femur. This depression is called the _____.
The largest bone of the body is the ____, the large, long bone of the thigh.
larger, medial bone of the leg
the smaller, more lateral bone of the leg
slit-like opening in a bone
"trench / ditch";
smooth, concave or convex articular surface
rounded, articular projection supported by a neck
"above" a condyle;
very large projection
rough, variable-sized bump
In the fetus and newborn, there are bands of fibrocartilage between the developing bones of the skull. These are called _____. This arrangement allows the head to fit through the birth canal and also allows for some continued growth of the brain after birth.
The easiest fontanel to find on a newborn is the _____, the place where the 2 frontal bones join the 2 parietal bones.
The _____ is where the temporal, parietal and frontal bones are joined.
The _____ is along the midline between the parietal and occipital bones.
The _____ is where the parietal, occipital and temporal bones meet.
In the first few months of life, the fontanels fuse and become bone, but the remnants of these joints remain as ____ of the skull, zigzag lines that hold the bones of the skull together tightly.
In females, the angle between the ischial tuberosities, called the ____, is generally greater than *) degrees, while in males the angle is less than 90 degrees.
The root "_____" means joint.
_____ are not capable of functional movement.
_______ are slightly moveable.
_______ are fully moveable.
_____ are made up of a band of dense irregular connective tissue. This is what holds together the bones of the skull; it is also what holds teeth in place.
A _____, like that between the true ribs and the sternum, is where bones are held together by cartilage.
In a ____, a _______ is present and filled with synovial fluid.
______ covers the bones where they are in contact.
A set of membranes called the _____ holds the bones in the correct position and also encloses the fluid portion of the joint.
At points where tendons and ligaments move across bone, there are slippery bags called _____ that allow these to move past each other without friction.
Moveable joints can make 2 kinds of movements: _____ and ______.
gliding movements and angular movements
_____ are side-to-side and do not change the angle of a joint.
_____ change the angle of the joint.
Movements that decrease the angle of a joint are called ______.
Movements that increase the angle of a joint are called _____.
If an extension movement reaches the anatomical position and keeps going, it is called __________.
Since the vertebrae can bend sideways, the movement of _____ is possible for the back only.
A motion that takes your body away from the midline is _______.
A motion that brings your body closer to the midline is _______.
A circular movement with the shoulder or hip joint is _____.
What are the 6 types of synovial joints?
example of planar joit
example of hinge joint
example of pivot joint
between head of radius and radial notch of ulna
example of condyloid joint
example of saddle joint
base of thumb
example of ball-and-socket joint
______ is an inflammation of the bursa which allows tendons and ligaments to slide past bones at joints.
______ are microscopic tears in a ligament.
______ are tears in a muscle or the tendon that connects muscle to bone.
The bone's shaft or body – the long, cylindrical, main portion of the bone.
The proximal and distal ends of the bone.
The regions between the diaphysis and the epiphyses.
A thin layer of hyaline Cartlidge covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation (joint) with another bone.
A tough connective tissue sheath and it's associated blood supply that surrounds the bone surface wherever it is not covered by an articular cartilage
A hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow and numerous blood vessels in adults
Medullary cavity or marrow cavity
A thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity
This structure is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.