Module 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 7 Deck (166):
1

What are the four types of tissues?

epithelial;
connective;
muscular;
nervous

2

______ is found wherever borders are needed.

Epithelial tissue

3

The opening of the intestinal tract is the _____.

lumen

4

_____ is used for strength and to hold organs together.

Connective tissue

5

_______ moves body parts around.

Muscular tissue

6

_______ forms the central nervous system plus the peripheral nervous system (ganglia and nerves).

Nervous tissue

7

What are the 2 surfaces of the epithelial cells?

apical surface and basal surface

8

A ______ faces the outside world.

apical surface

9

A _______ rests on and is attached to, the basement membrane.

basal surface

10

The ______ has two thin layers, each called a lamina.

basement membrane

11

The ______ is nearest the epithelial cells.

basal lamina

12

The _____ is a bit deeper than the basal lamina.

reticular lamina

13

What are the features of the epithelium?

- Densely packed cells;
- Innervated but avascular;
- One free surface (apical);
- One surface membrane attached to basement membrane;
- Receives nutrients from underlying connective tissue;
- Serves as barriers to keep the outside out and the inside in;
- Serves as barriers that secrete substances
- Serves as barriers for protection

14

______ cells are a single layer and all are in contact with the basement membrane.

simple

15

_______ appears to have layers but everyone is in contact with the basement membrane.

pseudostratified

16

______ is where the cells are in layers, so only the lowest layer is in contact with the basement membrane.

stratified

17

_______ cells, as the name suggests, are flat and shaped like fish scales. They are wider than they are tall.

Squamous

18

_______ cells are as wide as they are tall, like little ice cubes.

Cuboidal

19

_______ cells, like a column, are taller than they are wide.

Columnar

20

_______ epithelia contain cells that change shape depending on whether the organ is enlarged or shrunken.

Transitional

21

What type of tissue covers, lines, and forms glands?

Epithelial

22

What major tissue type holds structures together?

Connective

23

What type of tissue facilitates movement of substances within the body?

Muscular

24

What type of tissue conducts electrical impulses to and from the central nervous system?

Nervous

25

A basement membrane is found in ______ tissues.

epithelial

26

Name 2 layers of the basement membrane.

basal lamina and reticular lamina

27

Anchoring epithelial tissues to the underlying connective tissue it the function of the _______.

basement membrane

28

Flat, tile-like epithelial cells are more accurately called ______ epithelium.

squamous

29

Cells that are taller than they are wide are referred to as _______ epithelium.

columnar

30

Epithelial cells that are as wide as they are tall are known as _______ epithelium.

cuboidal

31

What is the name of the tissue that has nuclei at different levels but each cell is attached to the basement membrane?

pseudostratified

32

The epithelial tissue in which all the cells are in a single layer is called ______ epithelium.

simple

33

Multiple layers of cells are referred to as being _______.

stratified

34

A tissue consists of many layers of epithelial cells. At the basal surface, the cells appear to be cuboidal in shape. At the apical surface, the cells appear as flat, tile-like cells. This tissue would be appropriately classified as _______ epithium.

transitionanal

35

A single layer of cells which are thin and flat (a ______ epithelium) is used where substances need to diffuse across the epithelium, or where filtration is taking place.

simple squamous

36

What are the locations of simple squamous epithelia?

- lining of the heart;
- lining of blood vessels and lymph vessels;
- air sacs of the lungs;
- kidney filtration;
- eardrum;
- one layer of serous membrane

37

A ______ is often found where secretion or absorption is taking place.

simple cuboidal epithelium

38

What are the locations of the simple cuboidal epithelia?

- surface of ovaries;
- eye;
- kidney tubules;
many glands

39

What is the difference in the 2 subtypes of simple columnar epithelia?

one has cilia on its apical surface to help move mucus and substances across the cell;
the other does not have cilia but has many microvilli and is used for secretion and absorption

40

Where are ciliated simple columnar epithelia found?

- respiratory tract;
- uterine tubes / uterus;
- efferent ducts testes;
- some paranasal sinuses;
- canal of spin cord and ventricles of brain

41

Where are nonciliated columnar epithelia found?

- GI tract;
- glandular ducts;
- gallbladder

42

________ is unusual. It appears to have layers, but does not, all cells are attached to the basement membrane but may not extend to the apical surface.

Pseudostratified columnar epithelia

43

One place ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelia is found is in the upper respiratory tract, where goblet cells secrete mucus to trap dust and invaders, so they can be moved up to the throat by the cilia of the _______.

mucociliary escalator

44

Skin is also called _______.

integument

45

Skin and mucous membranes are both ______ and so it's safe to say this is the most common type of epithelium in the human body.

stratified squamous epithelium

46

______, with 2 or more layers of cube-shaped cells, is found in sweat gland ducts, and parts of the male urethra.

Stratified cuboidal epithlium

47

_______ consists of cells which are taller than they are wide on the apical surface. These form part of the lining of the urethra, the excretory ducts of the esophageal glands, a small part of the anal mucous membrane, and parts of the conjunctiva of the eye.

Stratified columnar epithelium

48

______ is the term used when the shape of cells, and their layering, changes depending on whether the organ is stretched or contracted.

Transitional epithelium

49

Endothelium is a specialized form of epithelium found in the lining of ________.

simple squamous epithelia

50

The 2 main functions of simple cuboidal and columnar epithelium are ______ and ______.

secretion and absorption

51

The structure of simple columnar epithelium can vary. The cells may be ciliated, nonciliated, or contain numerous _____ on their cell surface.

microvilli

52

_____ provide increased surface area for absorption.

Cilia

53

Which type of epithelium would be found in areas of extreme wear and tear?

stratified squamous epithelia

54

Where is stratified cuboidal epithelium found?

sweat glands
esophageal glands
urethra

55

Tissue with cells that are as tall as they are wide and having multiple layers would be classified as ______.

stratified columnar epithelia

56

The bladder needs to stretch. Which epithelial tissue would be best for the function?

transitional epithelia

57

______ glands are ductless. They secrete substances into extracellular fluid, then into the blood.

Endocrine

58

_____ glands secrete substances into ducts and empty onto the surface of the epithelium.

Exocrine

59

Glandular epithelium is responsible for _______.

secretion

60

Exocrine glands have a _____, which conducts the secretory product to where it is supposed to end up, and a secretory portion, where the cells that make the glandular secretion are located.

ducts

61

The branching pattern of the unbranched duct is called _____.

simple

62

The branching pattern of the branched duct is called ______.

compound

63

The tube-like shape of the secretory protein is _______.

tubular

64

The grape-like shape of the secretory protein is ______.

acinar

65

The shape of a secretory protein that looks grape-like and tube-like is called _______.

tubuloacinar

66

A _____ shape to the secretory portion is shaped like a tube.

tubular

67

The ______ shape looks like a single grape or a bunch of grapes.

acinar

68

A combination of the tubular and acinar types in the secretory portion is called ______.

tubuloacinar

69

The only glands that are tubuloacinar in their secretory portion are branched in the duct portion, so there is only one type to remember: ________.

compound tubuloacinar

70

There are 3 names in the ____ classification of the cells that make up the secretory portion of the gland.

functional

71

In ______ secretion, the protein is formed in the RER, as with any protein. In the Golgi, it's packaged into vesicles that can then fuse with the cell membrane on demand to release the cell's secretory product. Saliva and pancreatic enzymes are secreted this way.

merocrine

72

______ secretions begin like merocrine secretion, but the vesicles gather together in a little cell life raft which is then jettisoned and broken open, releasing the vesicle product. The male prostate and female mammary glands secrete their products in this way.

Apocrine

73

______ secretion is the most violent and destructive form of secretion. The secretory product is made in the cytoplasm of the cell, and then the cell blows itself to bits, releasing the secretory product. The sebaceous glands of the skin, which are over-active in teenagers, use this mode of secretion.

Holocrine
(think "Holocaust"

74

What is the main function of glandular epithelium?

secretion

75

Merocrine secretions are released through vesicle-mediated _______.

secretory products

76

Exocrine secretion resulting from the pinching off of the apical surface of a cell is known as ______ secretion.

apocrine

77

Exocrine secretion through cellular rupture is known as _____ secretion.

holocrine

78

Fibroblasts are the most numerous cells in ______ tissue.

connective

79

Goblets produce _______.

mucus

80

Adipocytes are found in ______ tissue.

fatty

81

Plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) produce _______.

antibodies

82

What are the proteins of the Ground Substance?

Fibronectin
Laminin
Proteoglycans

83

______ is the main structural protein of the body.

Collagen

84

______ are made up of collagen.

Collagen fibers

85

Collagen is a ______, meaning 3 long strands twisted together.

triple helix

86

_______ are made up of elastin and are abundant in tissues that need to stretch and then snap back into their previous shape.

Elastin fibers

87

______ are made up of type III collagen.

Reticular fibers

88

Cells found in connective tissue include: ______.

fibroblasts,
adipocytes,
mast cells
,white blood cells,
macrophages,
plasma cells

89

_______ is the most numerous connective tissue cell.

Fibroblasts

90

______ are important in inflammation.

Mast cells

91

_______ include the immun cells.

White blood cells

92

______ eat debris or invaders.

Macrophages

93

______ lay down the protein fibers: collagen, elastin, and reticular.

Fibroblasts

94

Body fat is produced by _____ and is used for insulation.

adipocytes

95

______ defend the body against invaders and are made up of a group that includes: mast cells, WBCs, macrophages, and plasma cells.

Defensive cells

96

Areolar tissue is classified as a _____ connective tissue.

mature

97

What type of connective tissue is found under the skin, behind the eyes, and in yellow bone marrow?

adipose tissue

98

______ connective tissue has very little extracellular space and has a regular arrangement of collagen fibers.

Dense regular

99

The epiglottis, external ear, amd suditory tubes are formed by ______ cartilage.

elastic

100

What are the two types of bone tissue?

compact and spongy

101

Embryonic connective tissue consists of two types... What are they?

Mesenchyme and Mucous connective tissue

102

Mature connective tissue consists of 5 types: _____.

loose connective tissue;
dense connective tissue;
cartilage;
bone;
liquid

103

Almost all of the embryo is made up of ____, which is almost fluid in consistency and the cells are widely-spaced,

mesenchyme

104

In the umbilical cord of the embryo, connecting then mother and child, there is a jelly-like connective tissue once called _______ but now termed ______.

Wharton's jelly;
mucous connective tissue

105

What are the subcategories of loose connective tissue?

areolar connective tissue;
adipose tissue;
reticular connective tissue

106

______ is the most common connective tissue type and is found in a wide variety of locations, such as the layer supporting the skin and mucous membranes, and supporting surrounding organs.

Areolar connective tissue

107

_______, or fat, is found under the skin, around the heart and kidneys, in yellow bone marrow, and forms a cushion in joints and around the eye socket.

Adipose tissue

108

Reticular fibers in a loose meshwork with reticular cells in called ______.

reticular connective tissue

109

Reticular connective tissue forms the _____ of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow.

stoma

110

Reticular connective tissue also forms the _____ of the basement membrane.

reticular membrane

111

Dense connective tissue has 3 subcategories: _____.

dense regular;
dense irregular;
elastic

112

_____ appears grossly as a white, shiny sheet with a definite "grain" or orientation to the fibers.

Dense regular connective tissue

113

Dense regular tissue is found in ____ (which connects muscle to bone); in _____ (connecting bone to bone); and the sheetlike tendons called _______.

tendons;
ligaments;
aponeuroses

114

______ has fibroblasts and collagen fibers, but as the name suggests, the collagen fibers run in many different directions.

Dense irregular connective tissue

115

____ is made up of many oriented elastic fibers and a few scattered fibroblasts.

Elastic connective tissue

116

_____ is a connective tissue that is harder and less flexible than dense connective tissues.

Cartilage

117

What are the 3 types of cartilage?

hyaline;
fibrocartilage;
elastic cartilage

118

The living part of each type of cartilage is the ____, a cell that looks like a fried egg through the microscope.

chondrocyte

119

______ is the most abundant type of cartilage. It's a shiny, bluish-white substance that consists of fine collagen fibers and many chondrocytes.

Hyaline cartilage

120

In hyaline cartilage, the chondrocytes are enclosed in _____.

lacunae

121

The name _____ is a hunt that this type of cartilage has a more fibrous appearance.

fibrocartilage

122

______ makes up the flap that sorts out liquid from ait in the throat, in the external ear, ad in the tubes that connect the ear to the mouth that "pop" when pressure changes.

Elastic cartilage

123

The medical term for throat is ______.

epiglottis

124

The cells of bones are called ______ which means, naturally enough.

osteocytes

125

Compact bone has a regular complex and regular structure consisting of _____ as the basic functional and anatomical unit.

osteons

126

_____ has a much more irregular structure. Spikes of mineralized tissue have ample space between for bone marrow.

Spongy bone

127

The medical term for RBC is ______.

erythrocytes

128

The medical term for WBC is _____.

leukocytes

129

The medical term for platelets is ______.

thrombocytes

130

A liquid connective tissue matrix (_____) surrounds the formed elements of the blood.

plasma

131

_____ is a filtrate of blood with most of the cells and some of the protein removed.

Lymph

132

The liquid matrix of the blood is called ______.

plasma

133

______ connect adjacent cells and resist separation.

adhesion belt

134

_____ junctions form a leak-proof seal between adjacent cells.

tight

135

Epithelial cells are connected to the basement membrane by _____.

basal lumina

136

____ junctions allow small ions to pass from cell to cell.

gap

137

Proteins in gap junctions that form channels to provide a means of ion exchange are called _____.

connexon

138

_____ are the ziplock bags of the world.

Tight junctions

139

_____ use a protein called cadherin. These junctions work like a belt to keep the tissues' pants from falling down as they expand and contract.

Adherens junction

140

_____ are used as "spot welds" to hold tissue together against mechanical disruption.

Desmosomes

141

A ____ is half a desmosome. These are not found bewteen 2 cells, but rather between a cell and its basement membrane.

hemidesmosome

142

A protein called ____ is used to link the hemidesmosome to the basement membrane.

integrin

143

Epithelial membranes are formed by both ____ and _____ tissues.

epithelium and connective

144

What type of membrane lines the exterior surface of the body?

Cutaneous membrane

145

Synovial membranes consist mainly of _____ connective tissues.

dense

146

Body cavities are lined by _____ membranes.

serous

147

The serous membrane has 2 epithelial layers; the outer most is the ______ layer.

parietal

148

The serous membrane has 2 epithelial layers; the inner most is the ______ layer.

visceral

149

Synovial membranes secrete ____ fluid.

synovial

150

_____ line the interface between the body cavities and the outside world.

Mucous membranes

151

The connective tissue layer of mucous membranes is called a _____.

lamina propria

152

_____ form a lining between the body wall and internal organs.

Serous membranes

153

The _____, or skin, covers the outside body away from cavities.

cutaneous membrane

154

______ line the space between 2 bones forming a joint.

Synovial membranes

155

What are the 3 main types of muscle tissue?

skeletal;
cardiac;
smooth

156

_____ is also called voluntary muscle because it is under our voluntary control.

Skeletal muscle

157

Skeletal muscle is a type of _____ and it appears to be striped under a microscope.

striated muscle

158

_____ also has a striated appearance, but it is not generally thought of as under voluntary control.

Cardiac muscle

159

_____ is not under voluntary controlnor is it striated.

smooth muscle

160

One group of nerve cells (_____) receive sensory information from energy in the environment.

neurons

161

Individual neurons carry out the same 3 functions: they ____ information.

receive, process, and transmit

162

Neurons are aided by _____, which carry out structural and nutritional support for the nervous system.

glial cells

163

Together, muscle and nerve tissue are called ______ because they can produce action potentials and other unique electrical events inside the cell.

excitable tissues

164

______ muscle lacks striations and is under involuntary control

Smooth

165

______ muscle is under voluntary control.

Skeletal

166

Cardiac muscle is different in appearance from smooth muscle because of the presence of ________.

Striations