Flashcards in Module 7 Deck (166):
What are the four types of tissues?
______ is found wherever borders are needed.
The opening of the intestinal tract is the _____.
_____ is used for strength and to hold organs together.
_______ moves body parts around.
_______ forms the central nervous system plus the peripheral nervous system (ganglia and nerves).
What are the 2 surfaces of the epithelial cells?
apical surface and basal surface
A ______ faces the outside world.
A _______ rests on and is attached to, the basement membrane.
The ______ has two thin layers, each called a lamina.
The ______ is nearest the epithelial cells.
The _____ is a bit deeper than the basal lamina.
What are the features of the epithelium?
- Densely packed cells;
- Innervated but avascular;
- One free surface (apical);
- One surface membrane attached to basement membrane;
- Receives nutrients from underlying connective tissue;
- Serves as barriers to keep the outside out and the inside in;
- Serves as barriers that secrete substances
- Serves as barriers for protection
______ cells are a single layer and all are in contact with the basement membrane.
_______ appears to have layers but everyone is in contact with the basement membrane.
______ is where the cells are in layers, so only the lowest layer is in contact with the basement membrane.
_______ cells, as the name suggests, are flat and shaped like fish scales. They are wider than they are tall.
_______ cells are as wide as they are tall, like little ice cubes.
_______ cells, like a column, are taller than they are wide.
_______ epithelia contain cells that change shape depending on whether the organ is enlarged or shrunken.
What type of tissue covers, lines, and forms glands?
What major tissue type holds structures together?
What type of tissue facilitates movement of substances within the body?
What type of tissue conducts electrical impulses to and from the central nervous system?
A basement membrane is found in ______ tissues.
Name 2 layers of the basement membrane.
basal lamina and reticular lamina
Anchoring epithelial tissues to the underlying connective tissue it the function of the _______.
Flat, tile-like epithelial cells are more accurately called ______ epithelium.
Cells that are taller than they are wide are referred to as _______ epithelium.
Epithelial cells that are as wide as they are tall are known as _______ epithelium.
What is the name of the tissue that has nuclei at different levels but each cell is attached to the basement membrane?
The epithelial tissue in which all the cells are in a single layer is called ______ epithelium.
Multiple layers of cells are referred to as being _______.
A tissue consists of many layers of epithelial cells. At the basal surface, the cells appear to be cuboidal in shape. At the apical surface, the cells appear as flat, tile-like cells. This tissue would be appropriately classified as _______ epithium.
A single layer of cells which are thin and flat (a ______ epithelium) is used where substances need to diffuse across the epithelium, or where filtration is taking place.
What are the locations of simple squamous epithelia?
- lining of the heart;
- lining of blood vessels and lymph vessels;
- air sacs of the lungs;
- kidney filtration;
- one layer of serous membrane
A ______ is often found where secretion or absorption is taking place.
simple cuboidal epithelium
What are the locations of the simple cuboidal epithelia?
- surface of ovaries;
- kidney tubules;
What is the difference in the 2 subtypes of simple columnar epithelia?
one has cilia on its apical surface to help move mucus and substances across the cell;
the other does not have cilia but has many microvilli and is used for secretion and absorption
Where are ciliated simple columnar epithelia found?
- respiratory tract;
- uterine tubes / uterus;
- efferent ducts testes;
- some paranasal sinuses;
- canal of spin cord and ventricles of brain
Where are nonciliated columnar epithelia found?
- GI tract;
- glandular ducts;
________ is unusual. It appears to have layers, but does not, all cells are attached to the basement membrane but may not extend to the apical surface.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelia
One place ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelia is found is in the upper respiratory tract, where goblet cells secrete mucus to trap dust and invaders, so they can be moved up to the throat by the cilia of the _______.
Skin is also called _______.
Skin and mucous membranes are both ______ and so it's safe to say this is the most common type of epithelium in the human body.
stratified squamous epithelium
______, with 2 or more layers of cube-shaped cells, is found in sweat gland ducts, and parts of the male urethra.
Stratified cuboidal epithlium
_______ consists of cells which are taller than they are wide on the apical surface. These form part of the lining of the urethra, the excretory ducts of the esophageal glands, a small part of the anal mucous membrane, and parts of the conjunctiva of the eye.
Stratified columnar epithelium
______ is the term used when the shape of cells, and their layering, changes depending on whether the organ is stretched or contracted.
Endothelium is a specialized form of epithelium found in the lining of ________.
simple squamous epithelia
The 2 main functions of simple cuboidal and columnar epithelium are ______ and ______.
secretion and absorption
The structure of simple columnar epithelium can vary. The cells may be ciliated, nonciliated, or contain numerous _____ on their cell surface.
_____ provide increased surface area for absorption.
Which type of epithelium would be found in areas of extreme wear and tear?
stratified squamous epithelia
Where is stratified cuboidal epithelium found?
Tissue with cells that are as tall as they are wide and having multiple layers would be classified as ______.
stratified columnar epithelia
The bladder needs to stretch. Which epithelial tissue would be best for the function?
______ glands are ductless. They secrete substances into extracellular fluid, then into the blood.
_____ glands secrete substances into ducts and empty onto the surface of the epithelium.
Glandular epithelium is responsible for _______.
Exocrine glands have a _____, which conducts the secretory product to where it is supposed to end up, and a secretory portion, where the cells that make the glandular secretion are located.
The branching pattern of the unbranched duct is called _____.
The branching pattern of the branched duct is called ______.
The tube-like shape of the secretory protein is _______.
The grape-like shape of the secretory protein is ______.
The shape of a secretory protein that looks grape-like and tube-like is called _______.
A _____ shape to the secretory portion is shaped like a tube.
The ______ shape looks like a single grape or a bunch of grapes.
A combination of the tubular and acinar types in the secretory portion is called ______.
The only glands that are tubuloacinar in their secretory portion are branched in the duct portion, so there is only one type to remember: ________.
There are 3 names in the ____ classification of the cells that make up the secretory portion of the gland.
In ______ secretion, the protein is formed in the RER, as with any protein. In the Golgi, it's packaged into vesicles that can then fuse with the cell membrane on demand to release the cell's secretory product. Saliva and pancreatic enzymes are secreted this way.
______ secretions begin like merocrine secretion, but the vesicles gather together in a little cell life raft which is then jettisoned and broken open, releasing the vesicle product. The male prostate and female mammary glands secrete their products in this way.
______ secretion is the most violent and destructive form of secretion. The secretory product is made in the cytoplasm of the cell, and then the cell blows itself to bits, releasing the secretory product. The sebaceous glands of the skin, which are over-active in teenagers, use this mode of secretion.
What is the main function of glandular epithelium?
Merocrine secretions are released through vesicle-mediated _______.
Exocrine secretion resulting from the pinching off of the apical surface of a cell is known as ______ secretion.
Exocrine secretion through cellular rupture is known as _____ secretion.
Fibroblasts are the most numerous cells in ______ tissue.
Goblets produce _______.
Adipocytes are found in ______ tissue.
Plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) produce _______.
What are the proteins of the Ground Substance?
______ is the main structural protein of the body.
______ are made up of collagen.
Collagen is a ______, meaning 3 long strands twisted together.
_______ are made up of elastin and are abundant in tissues that need to stretch and then snap back into their previous shape.
______ are made up of type III collagen.
Cells found in connective tissue include: ______.
,white blood cells,
_______ is the most numerous connective tissue cell.
______ are important in inflammation.
_______ include the immun cells.
White blood cells
______ eat debris or invaders.
______ lay down the protein fibers: collagen, elastin, and reticular.
Body fat is produced by _____ and is used for insulation.
______ defend the body against invaders and are made up of a group that includes: mast cells, WBCs, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Areolar tissue is classified as a _____ connective tissue.
What type of connective tissue is found under the skin, behind the eyes, and in yellow bone marrow?
______ connective tissue has very little extracellular space and has a regular arrangement of collagen fibers.
The epiglottis, external ear, amd suditory tubes are formed by ______ cartilage.
What are the two types of bone tissue?
compact and spongy
Embryonic connective tissue consists of two types... What are they?
Mesenchyme and Mucous connective tissue
Mature connective tissue consists of 5 types: _____.
loose connective tissue;
dense connective tissue;
Almost all of the embryo is made up of ____, which is almost fluid in consistency and the cells are widely-spaced,
In the umbilical cord of the embryo, connecting then mother and child, there is a jelly-like connective tissue once called _______ but now termed ______.
mucous connective tissue
What are the subcategories of loose connective tissue?
areolar connective tissue;
reticular connective tissue
______ is the most common connective tissue type and is found in a wide variety of locations, such as the layer supporting the skin and mucous membranes, and supporting surrounding organs.
Areolar connective tissue
_______, or fat, is found under the skin, around the heart and kidneys, in yellow bone marrow, and forms a cushion in joints and around the eye socket.
Reticular fibers in a loose meshwork with reticular cells in called ______.
reticular connective tissue
Reticular connective tissue forms the _____ of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow.
Reticular connective tissue also forms the _____ of the basement membrane.
Dense connective tissue has 3 subcategories: _____.
_____ appears grossly as a white, shiny sheet with a definite "grain" or orientation to the fibers.
Dense regular connective tissue
Dense regular tissue is found in ____ (which connects muscle to bone); in _____ (connecting bone to bone); and the sheetlike tendons called _______.
______ has fibroblasts and collagen fibers, but as the name suggests, the collagen fibers run in many different directions.
Dense irregular connective tissue
____ is made up of many oriented elastic fibers and a few scattered fibroblasts.
Elastic connective tissue
_____ is a connective tissue that is harder and less flexible than dense connective tissues.
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
The living part of each type of cartilage is the ____, a cell that looks like a fried egg through the microscope.
______ is the most abundant type of cartilage. It's a shiny, bluish-white substance that consists of fine collagen fibers and many chondrocytes.
In hyaline cartilage, the chondrocytes are enclosed in _____.
The name _____ is a hunt that this type of cartilage has a more fibrous appearance.
______ makes up the flap that sorts out liquid from ait in the throat, in the external ear, ad in the tubes that connect the ear to the mouth that "pop" when pressure changes.
The medical term for throat is ______.
The cells of bones are called ______ which means, naturally enough.
Compact bone has a regular complex and regular structure consisting of _____ as the basic functional and anatomical unit.
_____ has a much more irregular structure. Spikes of mineralized tissue have ample space between for bone marrow.
The medical term for RBC is ______.
The medical term for WBC is _____.
The medical term for platelets is ______.
A liquid connective tissue matrix (_____) surrounds the formed elements of the blood.
_____ is a filtrate of blood with most of the cells and some of the protein removed.
The liquid matrix of the blood is called ______.
______ connect adjacent cells and resist separation.
_____ junctions form a leak-proof seal between adjacent cells.
Epithelial cells are connected to the basement membrane by _____.
____ junctions allow small ions to pass from cell to cell.
Proteins in gap junctions that form channels to provide a means of ion exchange are called _____.
_____ are the ziplock bags of the world.
_____ use a protein called cadherin. These junctions work like a belt to keep the tissues' pants from falling down as they expand and contract.
_____ are used as "spot welds" to hold tissue together against mechanical disruption.
A ____ is half a desmosome. These are not found bewteen 2 cells, but rather between a cell and its basement membrane.
A protein called ____ is used to link the hemidesmosome to the basement membrane.
Epithelial membranes are formed by both ____ and _____ tissues.
epithelium and connective
What type of membrane lines the exterior surface of the body?
Synovial membranes consist mainly of _____ connective tissues.
Body cavities are lined by _____ membranes.
The serous membrane has 2 epithelial layers; the outer most is the ______ layer.
The serous membrane has 2 epithelial layers; the inner most is the ______ layer.
Synovial membranes secrete ____ fluid.
_____ line the interface between the body cavities and the outside world.
The connective tissue layer of mucous membranes is called a _____.
_____ form a lining between the body wall and internal organs.
The _____, or skin, covers the outside body away from cavities.
______ line the space between 2 bones forming a joint.
What are the 3 main types of muscle tissue?
_____ is also called voluntary muscle because it is under our voluntary control.
Skeletal muscle is a type of _____ and it appears to be striped under a microscope.
_____ also has a striated appearance, but it is not generally thought of as under voluntary control.
_____ is not under voluntary controlnor is it striated.
One group of nerve cells (_____) receive sensory information from energy in the environment.
Individual neurons carry out the same 3 functions: they ____ information.
receive, process, and transmit
Neurons are aided by _____, which carry out structural and nutritional support for the nervous system.
Together, muscle and nerve tissue are called ______ because they can produce action potentials and other unique electrical events inside the cell.
______ muscle lacks striations and is under involuntary control
______ muscle is under voluntary control.