Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (191):
_______ molecules are those that contain carbon.
Organic molecules are more complex and generally larger than ________ molecules.
What are 5 examples of organic molecules?
4. nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
5. adenosine triphosphate
Carbon always makes _____ bonds because it always has ____ electrons available in it's valence shell.
4 (for both)
Carbon-containing compounds exist in many ______; the same number of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and hydrogen atoms can make thousands of different compounds.
An _____ is just a rearranged form of the same molecules. In other words, same molecular formula, different structure.
_____ groups are found where an oxygen uses each of its two allowed bonds in a single covalent bond with carbons, one on each side.
Oxygen and Sulfur are both in group VI of the periodic table. That means they both have a valence of -2, meaning they can form 2 bonds, If one bond is to a hydrogen, then we call these _________ or _______ groups.
Just as there are common groupings of inorganic atoms into polyatomic ions organic compounds contain common groupings. These arrangements that are commonly found in carbon-containing molecules are called ______________.
_______ groups and _______ groups are both important parts of amino acids.
_______ refers to the amino (nitrogen-containing group), which acts as a base, attracting hydrogen ions.
_____ refers to the carboxylic acid (-COOH) group, which has a wandering hydrogen.
The _______ is formed from reaction of acid and alcohol. It is found in fats, oils, also nerve chemical acetylcholine.
The _______ is the same as in bases. It is found in alcohols ad sugars. It makes organic molecules water-soluble.
The ______ is an organic acid. It is usually charged at cellular pH.
________ groups are formed from a phosphorus atom making a double covalent bond to one oxygen and a single covalent bond to 3 others.
________ acts as a base. It binds to H+ at cellular pH.
Amino + carboxyl in the same molecule is an ________.
Phosphate groups are found in energy storing molecules and in _________.
nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
A carbon which forms a double covalent bond to an oxygen (the general name is carbonyl) is called a _______ if it's in the middle of a molecule or an ________ if it's at the end.
_________ contain carbon and oxygen in a double covalent bond. It is found in ketones and part of the water-loving group.
________ are formed when fats are broken down.
________ is like hydroxyl, but with sulfur instead of oxygen. It is an important protein structure.
What are the 4 main kinds of biological molecules?
2. lipids (fats)
4. nucleic acids
_________ are "watered carbon". Always one carbon plus one water.
_______ are more carbon than oxygen and repels water (hydrophobic).
______ are made up of amino acids.
_________ always contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some, also, include sulfur.
__________ are the sugar "backbone" plus nitrogenous base, Deoxyribose backbone, and Ribose backbone.
Biological molecules exist as ________ and ________.
monomers and polymers
Monomer = _______ unit.
Many units strung together = __________.
Polymers are ______ strung together.
A carbohydrate is a simple sugar (___________) such as glucose.
A protein monomer is an _______ ________.
A nucleic acid monomer is a ________.
_______ is a dimer (2 monomers) of the sugar monomers, ________ and ________.
glucose and fructose
Polymers of amino acids are ________ and ________.
polypeptides and proteins
Polymers of nucleotides are the ________ ________ (____) and ________ _______ (____).
deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
1 Dalton = 1 ____________.
atomic mass unit
Carbohydrates include ___ or ___ carbons.
5 or 6
What is always the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are drawn in which 2 ways?
as a string and as a ring or carbons with oxygens, hydrogens, and hydroxyl groups attached.
The rings of carbohydrates can join by a process called _________ _________.
Five-carbon sugars are called ________.
Six-carbon sugars are called ________.
Ribose and Deoxyribose are ________.
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose are _______.
__________ are simple sugars that contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms.
______ is the main blood sugar.
______ is the sugar found in fruits.
______ is a component of milk sugar.
_______ is a sugar found in DNA.
_______ is a sugar found in RNA.
_______ are two monosaccharides joined together, and are the simplest kind of sugar polymers. These are simple sugars formed from the conbination of two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis.
_________ are larger polymers of monosaccharides. These are tens to hundreds of monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
Sucrose = _______ + _________
glucose + fructose
Lactose = ________ + _________
glucose + galactose
Maltose = ________ + _________
glucose + glucose
_______ is the stored form of carbohydrates in animals.
_______ is the stored form of carbohydrates in plants and main carbohydrate in food.
_________ is part of cell walls in plants that cannot be digested by humans but aids movement of food through the intestines.
Hexoses are a _____ source.
Pentoses are essential for the structure of ____ and ____.
DNA and RNA
Human cells prefer ______ as a source of energy.
The opposite process of dehydration synthesis is called ________; a water molecule is added to sucrose as it is broken into glucose and fructose.
Hydrolysis of sucrose is catalyzed by an enzyme called ________.
invertase (aka: sucrase)
When glucose is plentiful, it is converted by the ______ to glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles.
The synthesis of _________ is when 3 fatty acids are added to glycerol backbone by dehydration synthesis.
triglycerides (tri = 3)
In proteins, the bonds that hold amino acid monomers together are formed from dehydration reactions that each create a __________.
This type of lipid is used to synthesize triglycerides and phospholipids or catabolized to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
This type of lipid is used for protection, insulation, and energy storage.
triglycerides (fats and oils)
This type of lipid is a major lipid component of cell membranes.
Cholesterol, Bile salts, vitamin D, adrenocorticol hormones, and sex hormones are all components of what type of lipid?
This suptype of lipids is a minor component of all animal cell membranes; precursor of bile salts, vitamin D, and steroid hormones.
This subtype of lipids is needed for digestion and absorption of dietary lipids.
This subtype of lipids helps regulate calcium level in the body and is needed for bone growth and repair.
This subtype of lipids helps regulate metabolism, resistance to stress, and salt and water balance.
This subtype of lipids stimulates reproductive functions and sexual characteristics.
This type of lipid has diverse effects on modifying responses to hormones, blood clotting, inflammation, immunity, stomach acid secretion, airway diameter, lipid breakdown, and smooth muscle contraction.
Eicosanoids (prostaglandins and leukotrienes)
This lipid is needed for synthesis of vitamin A, which is used to make visual pigments in the eyes and also functions as antioxidants.
This lipid promotes wound healing, prevents tissue scarring, contributes to the normal structure and function of the nervous system, and functions as an antioxidant.
This lipid is required for synthesis of blood-clotting proteins.
This lipid transports lipids in the blood, carry triglycerides and cholesterol to tissues, and removes excess cholesterol from the blood
______ consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They have different proportions than carbohydrates (less oxygen). They tend to be hydrophobic or non-polar. Is used to build cell membranes.
________ means repel water.
_______ molecules are charged ions and like being around water.
___________ molecules are not charged ions and hate being around water.
______ means that it likes being around water.
Lipids combined with ________ atoms make up compound lipids.
Lipid are found in association with protein carriers in the blood (__________).
Vitamin A is important in ______.
Vitamin D is important in ____________.
Vitamin E is a __________ molecule.
Vitamin K in important in _________.
_____ _____ are the basic building blocks of lipids.
______ fatty acids are those where all the carbons are filled, or saturated, with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms it can bind with.
When double bonds form between carbon atoms, fewer hydrogens can bond to carbons and an ________ fatty acid results.
Cell membranes are made up of __________.
Phospholipids have a hydrophillic "_____" group.
Phospholipids have a hydrophobic "______" group.
________ heads associate with water.
________ tails associate with each other.
Phospholipid molecules are _________ because most electrons from hydrogen atoms are in a stable relationship with carbon atoms.
Hydrophilic and ______ are used interchangeably.
Hydrophobic and ______ are used interchangeably.
_____ ______ are mostly made up of lipid bilayers.
_______ are lipids derived from arachidonic acid that are key chemicals in immune defense and inflammation.
The monomer which makes up proteins is called ________.
Strings of amino acids are called __________.
Proteins are _______ of amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis.
Amino acids have a simple structure: _______ and a _________ form the backbone.
2 carbons and a nitrogen
What is a shorthand way to write the carboxyl group?
An amino acid has 3 parts, each attached to a carbon and hydrogen atom (-CH). What are the parts?
1. Amino (base) group
2. Carboxyl (acid) group
3. R group
Polymers of amino acids are formed through the _________.
The resulting combination of two amino acids is called a __________.
More than two amino acids is called a _______.
Larger polypeptide are called ________, but there is no distinct line between the two.
_________: two amino acids, one peptide bond
_________: three amino acids, two peptide bonds.
_________: lots of amino acids, lots of peptide bonds.
Average amino acid = ________ molecular weight.
Proteins are syntheisized in a specialized cell machine called a ________.
Enzymes called _______ or _________ break peptide bonds by hydrolysis. This is what is happening in your gastrointestinal tract when you digest proteins.
peptidases or proteases
_____ is just shorthand for a chemical grouping (can be simple or complex).
The 20 amino acids all have one ____ (_____) and and one ______ (_____) end.
amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH)
The simplest amino acid is ______.
Is serine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Threonine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Gluatmine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Asparagine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Tyrosine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Serine polar or nonpolar?
Is Threonine polar or nonpolar?
Is Glutamine polar or nonpolar?
Is Asparagine polar or nonpolar?
Is Tyrosine polar or nonpolar?
Is Alanine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Valine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Leucine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Isoleucine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Methionine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Phenylalanine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Tryptophan hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Is Alanine polar or nonpolar?
Is Valine polar or nonpolar?
Is Leucine polar or nonpolar?
Is Isoleucine polar or nonpolar?
Is Methionine polar or nonpolar?
Is Phenylalanine polar or nonpolar?
Is Tryptophan polar or nonpolar?
What are the 4 levels of protein structure?
The ______ structure of protein is the order in which amino acids are strung together with peptide bonds.
The _________ structure of protein is how the sequence is folded.
The primary structure may be twisted or folded into a ___________ structure.
Hair is formed from the protein, _________.
Each ______ molecule is a sequence of amino acids twisted into an alpha helix.
What are the 2 types of secondary protein structure?
1. alphs helices
2. beta pleated sheets
___________ are found in many proteins in nature (such as spider silk) but are less common in the human body.
Beta pleated sheets
______ diagrams are a common way to represent protein structure.
Alpha helices are illustrated as _______.
Beta pleated sheets are illustrated as ______.
Amino acids that don't have secondary structure are _______.
The ______ structure of protein is how helices or sheets are arranged in three dimensions (3D).
The _______ structure of protein is the arrangement of multiple 3D structures into a functional protein.
What are the types of atomic interactions leading to tertiary structure?
1. Ionic bonds
2. Hydrophobic interactions
3. Van der Waals interactions
4. Disulfide bridges
5. Hydrogen bonds
______ _______ are formed when positive and negative charges attract each other.
_______ _______ occur where non-polar groups snuggle up to each other, excluding water.
___________ are not very well understood. As far as we know, these occur when the "shapes" of molecules fit each other like puzzle pieces.
Van der Waals interactions
_______ _______ are formed between cysteines. Cysteines are the only amino acid with an -SH group.
______ ______ are formed between hydrogens bound to O, N, or S and adjacent O, N, or S atoms.
The ____ _____ is an iron-containing group which holds onto the oxygen molecule.
Which of the following are proteins?
What is the building block of proteins?
What is the building block of triglycerides?
glycerol and fatty acids
What is the building block of carbohydrates?
What is the building block of nucleic acid?
Water molecules are polar because __________.
2 electron pairs are unevenly distributed between oxygen and hydrogen
What is the chemical reaction of an enzyme?
deceases the activation energy
What is the chemical reaction of temperature?
measurement of molecular motion
What is the chemical reaction of concentration?
number of molecules per unit volume
What is the chemical reaction of substrate?
target of an enzyme
What is the chemical reaction of catabolic reaction?
What is the chemical reaction of anabolic reaction?
What is the chemical reaction of stored energy?
Blood types A, B and O differ in the:
A. amino acid –R groups
B. number and pattern of carbohydrate molecules attached to a lipid "anchor"
C. number of fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone
D. primary sequence of amino acids
B. number and pattern of carbohydrate molecules attached to a lipid "anchor"
The amino acid cysteine is the only amino acid with a sulfhydryl group. As a result, cysteine residues are found wherever proteins form a _____________ bond.
There are 20 different amino acids. How many -R groups are there?
There are several different levels of organization of protein molecules. Van der Waals forces, disulfide bridges (Cys–S–S–Cys) and hydrogen bonds between protein chains help maintain the ________ structure.
The complete, functional signaling protein insulin consists of three A chains and three B chains. This is an example of ________ structure.