Module 3 Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy and Physiology > Module 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (191):
1

_______ molecules are those that contain carbon.

Organic

2

Organic molecules are more complex and generally larger than ________ molecules.

inorganic

3

What are 5 examples of organic molecules?

1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
5. adenosine triphosphate

4

Carbon always makes _____ bonds because it always has ____ electrons available in it's valence shell.

4 (for both)

5

Carbon-containing compounds exist in many ______; the same number of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and hydrogen atoms can make thousands of different compounds.

isomers

6

An _____ is just a rearranged form of the same molecules. In other words, same molecular formula, different structure.

isomer

7

_____ groups are found where an oxygen uses each of its two allowed bonds in a single covalent bond with carbons, one on each side.

Ester

8

Oxygen and Sulfur are both in group VI of the periodic table. That means they both have a valence of -2, meaning they can form 2 bonds, If one bond is to a hydrogen, then we call these _________ or _______ groups.

hydroxyl (-OH);
sulfhydryl (-SH)

9

Just as there are common groupings of inorganic atoms into polyatomic ions organic compounds contain common groupings. These arrangements that are commonly found in carbon-containing molecules are called ______________.

functional groups

10

_______ groups and _______ groups are both important parts of amino acids.

Carboxyl;
Amino

11

_______ refers to the amino (nitrogen-containing group), which acts as a base, attracting hydrogen ions.

Amino

12

_____ refers to the carboxylic acid (-COOH) group, which has a wandering hydrogen.

Acid

13

The _______ is formed from reaction of acid and alcohol. It is found in fats, oils, also nerve chemical acetylcholine.

Ester group

14

The _______ is the same as in bases. It is found in alcohols ad sugars. It makes organic molecules water-soluble.

Hydroxyl group

15

The ______ is an organic acid. It is usually charged at cellular pH.

Carboxyl group

16

________ groups are formed from a phosphorus atom making a double covalent bond to one oxygen and a single covalent bond to 3 others.

Phosphate

17

________ acts as a base. It binds to H+ at cellular pH.

Amino groups

18

Amino + carboxyl in the same molecule is an ________.

amino acid

19

Phosphate groups are found in energy storing molecules and in _________.

nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)

20

A carbon which forms a double covalent bond to an oxygen (the general name is carbonyl) is called a _______ if it's in the middle of a molecule or an ________ if it's at the end.

ketone;
aldehyde

21

_________ contain carbon and oxygen in a double covalent bond. It is found in ketones and part of the water-loving group.

Carbonyl group

22

________ are formed when fats are broken down.

Ketones

23

________ is like hydroxyl, but with sulfur instead of oxygen. It is an important protein structure.

Sulfhydryl group

24

What are the 4 main kinds of biological molecules?

1. carbohydrates
2. lipids (fats)
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids

25

_________ are "watered carbon". Always one carbon plus one water.

carbohydrates

26

_______ are more carbon than oxygen and repels water (hydrophobic).

lipids (fats)

27

______ are made up of amino acids.

Proteins

28

_________ always contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some, also, include sulfur.

Amino acids

29

__________ are the sugar "backbone" plus nitrogenous base, Deoxyribose backbone, and Ribose backbone.

Nucleic acids

30

Biological molecules exist as ________ and ________.

monomers and polymers

31

Monomer = _______ unit.

one

32

Many units strung together = __________.

polymer

33

Polymers are ______ strung together.

monomers

34

A carbohydrate is a simple sugar (___________) such as glucose.

monosaccharide

35

A protein monomer is an _______ ________.

amino acid

36

A nucleic acid monomer is a ________.

nucleotide

37

_______ is a dimer (2 monomers) of the sugar monomers, ________ and ________.

glucose and fructose

38

Polymers of amino acids are ________ and ________.

polypeptides and proteins

39

Polymers of nucleotides are the ________ ________ (____) and ________ _______ (____).

deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)

40

1 Dalton = 1 ____________.

atomic mass unit

41

Carbohydrates include ___ or ___ carbons.

5 or 6

42

What is always the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrates?

1:2:1

43

Carbohydrates are drawn in which 2 ways?

as a string and as a ring or carbons with oxygens, hydrogens, and hydroxyl groups attached.

44

The rings of carbohydrates can join by a process called _________ _________.

dehydration synthesis

45

Five-carbon sugars are called ________.

Pentoses

46

Six-carbon sugars are called ________.

Hexoses

47

Ribose and Deoxyribose are ________.

pentoses

48

Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose are _______.

hexoses

49

__________ are simple sugars that contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms.

Monosaccharides

50

______ is the main blood sugar.

Glucose

51

______ is the sugar found in fruits.

Fructose

52

______ is a component of milk sugar.

Galactose

53

_______ is a sugar found in DNA.

Deoxyribose

54

_______ is a sugar found in RNA.

Ribose

55

_______ are two monosaccharides joined together, and are the simplest kind of sugar polymers. These are simple sugars formed from the conbination of two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis.

Disaccharides

56

_________ are larger polymers of monosaccharides. These are tens to hundreds of monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

Polysaccharides

57

Sucrose = _______ + _________

glucose + fructose

58

Lactose = ________ + _________

glucose + galactose

59

Maltose = ________ + _________

glucose + glucose

60

_______ is the stored form of carbohydrates in animals.

Glycogen

61

_______ is the stored form of carbohydrates in plants and main carbohydrate in food.

Starch

62

_________ is part of cell walls in plants that cannot be digested by humans but aids movement of food through the intestines.

Cellulose

63

Hexoses are a _____ source.

food

64

Pentoses are essential for the structure of ____ and ____.

DNA and RNA

65

Human cells prefer ______ as a source of energy.

glucose

66

The opposite process of dehydration synthesis is called ________; a water molecule is added to sucrose as it is broken into glucose and fructose.

hydrolysis

67

Hydrolysis of sucrose is catalyzed by an enzyme called ________.

invertase (aka: sucrase)

68

When glucose is plentiful, it is converted by the ______ to glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles.

liver

69

The synthesis of _________ is when 3 fatty acids are added to glycerol backbone by dehydration synthesis.

triglycerides (tri = 3)

70

In proteins, the bonds that hold amino acid monomers together are formed from dehydration reactions that each create a __________.

peptide bond

71

This type of lipid is used to synthesize triglycerides and phospholipids or catabolized to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

fatty acids

72

This type of lipid is used for protection, insulation, and energy storage.

triglycerides (fats and oils)

73

This type of lipid is a major lipid component of cell membranes.

phospholipids

74

Cholesterol, Bile salts, vitamin D, adrenocorticol hormones, and sex hormones are all components of what type of lipid?

Steroids

75

This suptype of lipids is a minor component of all animal cell membranes; precursor of bile salts, vitamin D, and steroid hormones.

Cholesterol

76

This subtype of lipids is needed for digestion and absorption of dietary lipids.

bile salts

77

This subtype of lipids helps regulate calcium level in the body and is needed for bone growth and repair.

vitamin D

78

This subtype of lipids helps regulate metabolism, resistance to stress, and salt and water balance.

adrenocorticol hormones

79

This subtype of lipids stimulates reproductive functions and sexual characteristics.

sex hormones

80

This type of lipid has diverse effects on modifying responses to hormones, blood clotting, inflammation, immunity, stomach acid secretion, airway diameter, lipid breakdown, and smooth muscle contraction.

Eicosanoids (prostaglandins and leukotrienes)

81

This lipid is needed for synthesis of vitamin A, which is used to make visual pigments in the eyes and also functions as antioxidants.

Carotenes

82

This lipid promotes wound healing, prevents tissue scarring, contributes to the normal structure and function of the nervous system, and functions as an antioxidant.

Vitamin E

83

This lipid is required for synthesis of blood-clotting proteins.

Vitamin K

84

This lipid transports lipids in the blood, carry triglycerides and cholesterol to tissues, and removes excess cholesterol from the blood

lipoproteins

85

______ consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They have different proportions than carbohydrates (less oxygen). They tend to be hydrophobic or non-polar. Is used to build cell membranes.

Lipids

86

________ means repel water.

hydrophobic

87

_______ molecules are charged ions and like being around water.

polar

88

___________ molecules are not charged ions and hate being around water.

non-polar

89

______ means that it likes being around water.

hydrophillic

90

Lipids combined with ________ atoms make up compound lipids.

phosphorus

91

Lipid are found in association with protein carriers in the blood (__________).

lipoproteins

92

Vitamin A is important in ______.

vision

93

Vitamin D is important in ____________.

bone formation

94

Vitamin E is a __________ molecule.

protective

95

Vitamin K in important in _________.

blood clotting

96

_____ _____ are the basic building blocks of lipids.

fatty acids

97

______ fatty acids are those where all the carbons are filled, or saturated, with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms it can bind with.

Saturated

98

When double bonds form between carbon atoms, fewer hydrogens can bond to carbons and an ________ fatty acid results.

unsaturated

99

Cell membranes are made up of __________.

phospholipids

100

Phospholipids have a hydrophillic "_____" group.

head

101

Phospholipids have a hydrophobic "______" group.

tail

102

________ heads associate with water.

Hydrophillic

103

________ tails associate with each other.

Hydrophobic

104

Phospholipid molecules are _________ because most electrons from hydrogen atoms are in a stable relationship with carbon atoms.

amphipathic

105

Hydrophilic and ______ are used interchangeably.

polar

106

Hydrophobic and ______ are used interchangeably.

non-polar

107

_____ ______ are mostly made up of lipid bilayers.

cell membranes

108

_______ are lipids derived from arachidonic acid that are key chemicals in immune defense and inflammation.

Eicosanoids

109

The monomer which makes up proteins is called ________.

amino acid

110

Strings of amino acids are called __________.

polypeptides

111

Proteins are _______ of amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis.

polymers

112

Amino acids have a simple structure: _______ and a _________ form the backbone.

2 carbons and a nitrogen

113

What is a shorthand way to write the carboxyl group?

-COOH

114

An amino acid has 3 parts, each attached to a carbon and hydrogen atom (-CH). What are the parts?

1. Amino (base) group
2. Carboxyl (acid) group
3. R group

115

Polymers of amino acids are formed through the _________.

peptide bonds

116

The resulting combination of two amino acids is called a __________.

dipeptide

117

More than two amino acids is called a _______.

polypeptide

118

Larger polypeptide are called ________, but there is no distinct line between the two.

proteins

119

_________: two amino acids, one peptide bond

Dipeptide

120

_________: three amino acids, two peptide bonds.

Tripeptide

121

_________: lots of amino acids, lots of peptide bonds.

Polypeptide

122

Average amino acid = ________ molecular weight.

100 Da

123

Proteins are syntheisized in a specialized cell machine called a ________.

ribosome

124

Enzymes called _______ or _________ break peptide bonds by hydrolysis. This is what is happening in your gastrointestinal tract when you digest proteins.

peptidases or proteases

125

_____ is just shorthand for a chemical grouping (can be simple or complex).

R

126

The 20 amino acids all have one ____ (_____) and and one ______ (_____) end.

amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH)

127

The simplest amino acid is ______.

glycine

128

Is serine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

Hydrophilic

129

Is Threonine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic

130

Is Gluatmine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic

131

Is Asparagine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic

132

Is Tyrosine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic

133

Is Serine polar or nonpolar?

polar

134

Is Threonine polar or nonpolar?

polar

135

Is Glutamine polar or nonpolar?

polar

136

Is Asparagine polar or nonpolar?

polar

137

Is Tyrosine polar or nonpolar?

polar

138

Is Alanine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophobic

139

Is Valine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophobic

140

Is Leucine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophobic

141

Is Isoleucine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophobic

142

Is Methionine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophobic

143

Is Phenylalanine hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophobic

144

Is Tryptophan hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophobic

145

Is Alanine polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

146

Is Valine polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

147

Is Leucine polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

148

Is Isoleucine polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

149

Is Methionine polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

150

Is Phenylalanine polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

151

Is Tryptophan polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

152

What are the 4 levels of protein structure?

1. Primary
2. Secondary
3. Tertiary
4. Quaternary

153

The ______ structure of protein is the order in which amino acids are strung together with peptide bonds.

Primary

154

The _________ structure of protein is how the sequence is folded.

secondary

155

The primary structure may be twisted or folded into a ___________ structure.

secondary

156

Hair is formed from the protein, _________.

keratin

157

Each ______ molecule is a sequence of amino acids twisted into an alpha helix.

keratin

158

What are the 2 types of secondary protein structure?

1. alphs helices
2. beta pleated sheets

159

___________ are found in many proteins in nature (such as spider silk) but are less common in the human body.

Beta pleated sheets

160

______ diagrams are a common way to represent protein structure.

"Ribbon"

161

Alpha helices are illustrated as _______.

coils

162

Beta pleated sheets are illustrated as ______.

arrows

163

Amino acids that don't have secondary structure are _______.

threads

164

The ______ structure of protein is how helices or sheets are arranged in three dimensions (3D).

Tertiary

165

The _______ structure of protein is the arrangement of multiple 3D structures into a functional protein.

Quaternary

166

What are the types of atomic interactions leading to tertiary structure?

1. Ionic bonds
2. Hydrophobic interactions
3. Van der Waals interactions
4. Disulfide bridges
5. Hydrogen bonds

167

______ _______ are formed when positive and negative charges attract each other.

Ionic bonds

168

_______ _______ occur where non-polar groups snuggle up to each other, excluding water.

Hydrophobic interactions

169

___________ are not very well understood. As far as we know, these occur when the "shapes" of molecules fit each other like puzzle pieces.

Van der Waals interactions

170

_______ _______ are formed between cysteines. Cysteines are the only amino acid with an -SH group.

Disulfide bridges

171

______ ______ are formed between hydrogens bound to O, N, or S and adjacent O, N, or S atoms.

hydrogen bonds

172

The ____ _____ is an iron-containing group which holds onto the oxygen molecule.

heme group

173

Which of the following are proteins?
A. actin
B. myosin
C. triglyceride
D. hemoglobin
E. testosterone
F. enzyme
G. sucrose

A. actin
B. myosin
C. hemoglobin

174

What is the building block of proteins?

Amino acids

175

What is the building block of triglycerides?

glycerol and fatty acids

176

What is the building block of carbohydrates?

monosaccharides

177

What is the building block of nucleic acid?

nucleotides

178

Water molecules are polar because __________.

2 electron pairs are unevenly distributed between oxygen and hydrogen

179

What is the chemical reaction of an enzyme?

deceases the activation energy

180

What is the chemical reaction of temperature?

measurement of molecular motion

181

What is the chemical reaction of concentration?

number of molecules per unit volume

182

What is the chemical reaction of substrate?

target of an enzyme

183

What is the chemical reaction of catabolic reaction?

dehydration synthesis

184

What is the chemical reaction of anabolic reaction?

hydrolysis

185

What is the chemical reaction of stored energy?

ATP

186

Blood types A, B and O differ in the:
A. amino acid –R groups
B. number and pattern of carbohydrate molecules attached to a lipid "anchor"
C. number of fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone
D. primary sequence of amino acids

B. number and pattern of carbohydrate molecules attached to a lipid "anchor"

187

The amino acid cysteine is the only amino acid with a sulfhydryl group. As a result, cysteine residues are found wherever proteins form a _____________ bond.

disulfide

188

There are 20 different amino acids. How many -R groups are there?

20

189

There are several different levels of organization of protein molecules. Van der Waals forces, disulfide bridges (Cys–S–S–Cys) and hydrogen bonds between protein chains help maintain the ________ structure.

secondary

190

The complete, functional signaling protein insulin consists of three A chains and three B chains. This is an example of ________ structure.

quaternary

191

Proteins in the diet are broken down into amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the digestive system. These smaller molecules are mostly used to make:

new proteins