Flashcards in Module 8 Deck (102):
The skin is also called the _____ system or ________.
integumentary or cutaneous membrane
_______ hold cells together.
______ hold the epithelium to the basement membrane.
From the outside, in, the layers of the skin include the ______, ______, and _______.
The epidermis is mostly comprised of dead cells, which have expelled their nucleus and all organelles and become simply bags of proteins called ______.
Hair roots are found in the dermis, and there is a small bit of muscle (the ________) which controls the angle of each hair.
Beneath the dermis is the _______. This is not technically part of the skin but is a layer of areolar and/or adipose connective tissues
One dermatological disease that is very troubling is _______. This disease involves an autoimmune attack against the desmosomes.
The skin is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. From the deepest to the most superficial, the layers are:
___________ (only in thick skin)
A pneumonic for these layers from deep to superficial is:
Before Signing, Get Legal Counsel
or for superficial to deep is:
Cher Likes Getting Skin Botoxed
stratum lucidum (thick skin)
Keratinocytes are constantly made in the stratum basale. As cells are pushed superficially, they lose their nucleus and organelles and become dead bags of keratin. These cells are also called _______.
Corneocytes are constantly shed from the surface of the stratum corneum. The shed flakes are called _____.
_____, which covers everything except the palms, fingertips, and soles of the feet, is about 0.1mm thick.
______, also called glabrous skin, is found on the ventral (palmar) surface of the hands (palms and fingertips) and on the soles (plantar surface) or the feet.
What are the 4 cell types of the epidermis?
Intradermal macrophage (Langerhans) cell;
Tactile epithelial (Merkel) cell
______ (a cell membrane surrounding the protein keratin) make up about 90% of the cells of the epidermis.
About 8% of the cells are ______, cells which produce and carry pigment granules that give the skin it's color.
More rarely, we find ______, which is the skin's version of a type of immune cell called a dendritic cell.
The rarest epidermal cell is the ______, a type of nervous system cell that detects light touch.
The color of the skin comes from 3 classes of pigment: ______, _______, and ______.
What are the 2 kinds of melanin?
This kind of melanin is yellow to red.
This kind of melanin is brown to black.
In hair, pheomelanin and eumelanin granules are scattered among the keratin fibers. In skin, these pigments are produced in cells called ______.
Melanin is made from the amino acid tyrosine in an organelle called the _______.
The _______ is the connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis.
What are the 2 regions of the dermis?
papillary region and reticular region
The ______ is about a fifth of the thickness of the dermis.It is thrown up into the ridges that penetrate up into the epidermis and each of theses tends to contain blood vessels and the sensory structures known as Meissner corpuscles and free nerve endings.
The _____ is where the nerve and blood vessels run through the dermis. Also, hair roots (if present) and glands are found here as well.
Stretching, such as from obesity or pregnancy, can cause tears in the dermis. These are seen on the skin surface as _____ (or, more commonly, "stretch marks").
______ is the superficial portion of the dermis(about 1/5); consists of areolar connective tissue with thin collagen and fine elastic fibers; contains dermal ridges that house blood capillaries, corpuscles of touch, and free nerve endings.
______ is the deeper portion of the dermis (about 4/5); consists of dense irregular connective tissue with bundles of thick collagen and some coarse elastic fibers. Spaced between fibers contain some adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sudoriferous glands.
The subcutaneous layer of the skin is a typical example of an ______, which is a loose connective tissue made up of collagen, reticular and elastic fibers with adipose (fat) cells suspended in the fiber matrix.
areolar connective tissue
What are the 2 types of sweat glands?
eccrine and apocrine
_____ sweat glands are used to cool the skin and restore homeostasis.
_____ sweat glands produce a more viscous secretion that eccrine sweat glands. These secretions contain pheromones.
______ glands are most often found opening onto the neck of the hair follicle.
Sebaceous glands produce an oily secretion, called ______.
_____ is the portion of the nail that is not visible.
_____ (cuticle) is the stratum corneum of the epidermis.
______ is the thick, white part of the nail.
______ is the skin below the nail plate.
_____ is the visible portion of the nail.
_____ of the nail extends past the finger or toe.
_____ secures nail to the fingertip.
_____ is the finger bone.
______ is the epithelium proximal to the nail root. It contains dividing cells, which produce new nail cells.
What are the 3 layers of the hair shaft?
The _____ is the outermost layer for external hairs.
What are the 3 layers of the hair follicle?
dermal root sheath
The first stage of hair growth is _____. The hair matrix cells at the base of the follicle divide. This stage lasts 2-6 years
The second stage of hair growth is _____. The cells of the hair matrix stop dividing. This stage lasts 2-3 weeks
The third and final stage of hair growth is _____, which lasts about 3 months.
Melanocytes migrate into the skin from a location near the spinal cord called the ______; they are among the last skin cells to arrive.
Skin develops from the outermost of the 3 embryonic layers, called the _____.
_______ or _______ are a lesion that results from disruption in skin homeostasis.
pressure sores or decubitus ulcers
In a _____ burn, only the epidermis is involved. The skin reddens, but there is no permanent damage and the skin returns to normal in under a week.
In a _____ burn, the heat energy penetrates deeply and both the epidermis and the dermis are damaged. Blood vessels leak fluid and blisters form as the skin fills with the filtrate of blood. Hair follicles and glands are not typically damaged.
A ______ burn, or _____, destroys all layers of skin. Cells die and the skin function is lost in the affected area. The dead skin may be black, cherry-red, or ash-white.
third-degree or full thickness burn
What are the 2 thermoregulatory mechanisms?
When the body is too cold, in order to maintain homeostasis, the blood vessels in the dermis _____, conserving heat.
When the body is too hot, in order to maintain homeostasis, the blood vessels in the dermis _______, shedding heat.
The most common type of skin cancer is _____. While they are cancerous, they rarely spread to distant sites (or metastasize).
basal cell carcinoma
The second most common type of skin cancer is ________. This type of cancer will metastasize through the lymphatic system.
squamous cell carcinoma
The rarest form of skin cancer is also the most worrisome and deadly: _____. They spread avidly and can cause death when they metastasize.
To produce "goose bumps", arrector pili muscles are attached to a _______.
The primary protein found in dead epithelial skin cells is called ______.
The dermal layer contains blood vessels, nerves, glands, and _______.
living skin cells
______ is the result of an autoimmune attack on desmosome and hemidesmosome proteins.
Keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium is describing which layer of the skin?
Where is the stratum corneum in relation to the other skin layers?
Melanoma is a dangerous form of ______.
Which layer of the epidermis is continually undergoing mitosis?
A first-degree burn only involves the ______.
Langerhans cells in the epidermis function as ________.
Merkel cells are ______ receptors of the epidermis.
Individuals with little or no ____ are at greater risk for skin cancer.
melanin / pigment
The main function of the epidermis is _____.
Melanocytes can produce 2 types of melanin called _____ and ______.
pheomelanin and eumelanin
The pink coloration of the skin is due to circulating _____.
Ink that only penetrates the ______ will fade quickly.
Pressure sores are also known as _____ ulcers.
The _____ region of the dermis contains nerves, blood vessels, hair roots, and glands.
The epidermis gets its nutrients from the _____ loops in the papillary region.
Adipose tissue exists in large quantities in the ______ layer.
_____% of the body surface has been burned if the anterior surfaces of both legs are affected.
The Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles found deep in the dermis detect ______.
Pain, cold, and warm stimuli are all detected by _____.
free nerve endings
Odorant chemicals produced by apocrine sweat glands are called ______.
Rapidly dividing cells are found in the _____ and _____ matrices.
nail and hair
The medulla, cortex, and cuticle are all part of the hair root and the hair _____.
The anagen stage of hair growth is characterized by the _____ of the hair shaft.
The telogen stage of hair growth is taking place when the hair shaft is _____.
The fetal skin develops from the embryonic layer of tissue called the ______ (4th week).
Thermoregulation changes with age because of the redistribution of the _____ layer.
The stratum ____ is the skin layer responsible for filling in superficial wounds.
Deep wounds extend into the epidermis and the _____.
The papillary region of the dermis houses the _____ corpuscles and free nerve endings.
The palms, fingertips, and soles of the feet are considered to be ____ skin.
A second-degree burn involves the epidermis and _____.
A burn that involves loss of function, both layers of the skin, and even the subcutaneous layer is a _____ burn.
Adipocytes are found in large quantities in the ____ layer.