Module 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 8 Deck (102):
1

The skin is also called the _____ system or ________.

integumentary or cutaneous membrane

2

_______ hold cells together.

Desmosomes

3

______ hold the epithelium to the basement membrane.

hemidesmosomes

4

From the outside, in, the layers of the skin include the ______, ______, and _______.

epidermis,
dermis,
subcutaneous (hypodermis)

5

The epidermis is mostly comprised of dead cells, which have expelled their nucleus and all organelles and become simply bags of proteins called ______.

keratin

6

Hair roots are found in the dermis, and there is a small bit of muscle (the ________) which controls the angle of each hair.

arrector pili

7

Beneath the dermis is the _______. This is not technically part of the skin but is a layer of areolar and/or adipose connective tissues

subcutaneous layer

8

One dermatological disease that is very troubling is _______. This disease involves an autoimmune attack against the desmosomes.

pemphigus

9

The skin is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. From the deepest to the most superficial, the layers are:
___________
___________
___________
___________ (only in thick skin)
___________.
A pneumonic for these layers from deep to superficial is:
Before Signing, Get Legal Counsel
or for superficial to deep is:
Cher Likes Getting Skin Botoxed

stratum basale;
stratum spinosum;
stratum granulosum;
stratum lucidum (thick skin)
stratum corneum

10

Keratinocytes are constantly made in the stratum basale. As cells are pushed superficially, they lose their nucleus and organelles and become dead bags of keratin. These cells are also called _______.

corneocytes

11

Corneocytes are constantly shed from the surface of the stratum corneum. The shed flakes are called _____.

squames

12

_____, which covers everything except the palms, fingertips, and soles of the feet, is about 0.1mm thick.

Thin skin

13

______, also called glabrous skin, is found on the ventral (palmar) surface of the hands (palms and fingertips) and on the soles (plantar surface) or the feet.

Thick skin

14

What are the 4 cell types of the epidermis?

Keratinocyte;
Melanocyte;
Intradermal macrophage (Langerhans) cell;
Tactile epithelial (Merkel) cell

15

______ (a cell membrane surrounding the protein keratin) make up about 90% of the cells of the epidermis.

Dead keratinocytes

16

About 8% of the cells are ______, cells which produce and carry pigment granules that give the skin it's color.

melanocytes

17

More rarely, we find ______, which is the skin's version of a type of immune cell called a dendritic cell.

Langerhans cells

18

The rarest epidermal cell is the ______, a type of nervous system cell that detects light touch.

Merkel disc

19

The color of the skin comes from 3 classes of pigment: ______, _______, and ______.

melanin,
hemoglobin,
carotene

20

What are the 2 kinds of melanin?

pheomelanin,
eumelanin

21

This kind of melanin is yellow to red.

Pheomelanin

22

This kind of melanin is brown to black.

eumelanin

23

In hair, pheomelanin and eumelanin granules are scattered among the keratin fibers. In skin, these pigments are produced in cells called ______.

melanocytes

24

Melanin is made from the amino acid tyrosine in an organelle called the _______.

melanosome

25

The _______ is the connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis.

dermis

26

What are the 2 regions of the dermis?

papillary region and reticular region

27

The ______ is about a fifth of the thickness of the dermis.It is thrown up into the ridges that penetrate up into the epidermis and each of theses tends to contain blood vessels and the sensory structures known as Meissner corpuscles and free nerve endings.

papillary region

28

The _____ is where the nerve and blood vessels run through the dermis. Also, hair roots (if present) and glands are found here as well.

reticular region

29

Stretching, such as from obesity or pregnancy, can cause tears in the dermis. These are seen on the skin surface as _____ (or, more commonly, "stretch marks").

striae

30

______ is the superficial portion of the dermis(about 1/5); consists of areolar connective tissue with thin collagen and fine elastic fibers; contains dermal ridges that house blood capillaries, corpuscles of touch, and free nerve endings.

Papillary

31

______ is the deeper portion of the dermis (about 4/5); consists of dense irregular connective tissue with bundles of thick collagen and some coarse elastic fibers. Spaced between fibers contain some adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sudoriferous glands.

Retilcular

32

The subcutaneous layer of the skin is a typical example of an ______, which is a loose connective tissue made up of collagen, reticular and elastic fibers with adipose (fat) cells suspended in the fiber matrix.

areolar connective tissue

33

What are the 2 types of sweat glands?

eccrine and apocrine

34

_____ sweat glands are used to cool the skin and restore homeostasis.

Eccrine

35

_____ sweat glands produce a more viscous secretion that eccrine sweat glands. These secretions contain pheromones.

Apocrine

36

______ glands are most often found opening onto the neck of the hair follicle.

Sebaceous

37

Sebaceous glands produce an oily secretion, called ______.

sebum

38

_____ is the portion of the nail that is not visible.

nail root

39

_____ (cuticle) is the stratum corneum of the epidermis.

Eponychium

40

______ is the thick, white part of the nail.

Lunula

41

______ is the skin below the nail plate.

Nail bed

42

_____ is the visible portion of the nail.

Nail body

43

_____ of the nail extends past the finger or toe.

free edge

44

_____ secures nail to the fingertip.

Hyponychium

45

_____ is the finger bone.

Phalanx

46

______ is the epithelium proximal to the nail root. It contains dividing cells, which produce new nail cells.

Nail matrix

47

What are the 3 layers of the hair shaft?

medulla,
cortex,
cuticle

48

The _____ is the outermost layer for external hairs.

cuticle

49

What are the 3 layers of the hair follicle?

internal,
external,
dermal root sheath

50

The first stage of hair growth is _____. The hair matrix cells at the base of the follicle divide. This stage lasts 2-6 years

anagen

51

The second stage of hair growth is _____. The cells of the hair matrix stop dividing. This stage lasts 2-3 weeks

catagen

52

The third and final stage of hair growth is _____, which lasts about 3 months.

telogen

53

Melanocytes migrate into the skin from a location near the spinal cord called the ______; they are among the last skin cells to arrive.

neural crest

54

Skin develops from the outermost of the 3 embryonic layers, called the _____.

ectoderm

55

_______ or _______ are a lesion that results from disruption in skin homeostasis.

pressure sores or decubitus ulcers

56

In a _____ burn, only the epidermis is involved. The skin reddens, but there is no permanent damage and the skin returns to normal in under a week.

first-degree

57

In a _____ burn, the heat energy penetrates deeply and both the epidermis and the dermis are damaged. Blood vessels leak fluid and blisters form as the skin fills with the filtrate of blood. Hair follicles and glands are not typically damaged.

second-degree

58

A ______ burn, or _____, destroys all layers of skin. Cells die and the skin function is lost in the affected area. The dead skin may be black, cherry-red, or ash-white.

third-degree or full thickness burn

59

What are the 2 thermoregulatory mechanisms?

circulation;
sweating

60

When the body is too cold, in order to maintain homeostasis, the blood vessels in the dermis _____, conserving heat.

constrict

61

When the body is too hot, in order to maintain homeostasis, the blood vessels in the dermis _______, shedding heat.

dilate

62

The most common type of skin cancer is _____. While they are cancerous, they rarely spread to distant sites (or metastasize).

basal cell carcinoma

63

The second most common type of skin cancer is ________. This type of cancer will metastasize through the lymphatic system.

squamous cell carcinoma

64

The rarest form of skin cancer is also the most worrisome and deadly: _____. They spread avidly and can cause death when they metastasize.

melanoma

65

To produce "goose bumps", arrector pili muscles are attached to a _______.

hair follicle

66

The primary protein found in dead epithelial skin cells is called ______.

keratin

67

The dermal layer contains blood vessels, nerves, glands, and _______.

living skin cells

68

______ is the result of an autoimmune attack on desmosome and hemidesmosome proteins.

Pemphigus

69

Keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium is describing which layer of the skin?

epidermis

70

Where is the stratum corneum in relation to the other skin layers?

superior

71

Melanoma is a dangerous form of ______.

skin cancer

72

Which layer of the epidermis is continually undergoing mitosis?

stratum basale

73

A first-degree burn only involves the ______.

epidermis

74

Langerhans cells in the epidermis function as ________.

immune defense

75

Merkel cells are ______ receptors of the epidermis.

light touch

76

Individuals with little or no ____ are at greater risk for skin cancer.

melanin / pigment

77

The main function of the epidermis is _____.

protection

78

Melanocytes can produce 2 types of melanin called _____ and ______.

pheomelanin and eumelanin

79

The pink coloration of the skin is due to circulating _____.

hemoglobin

80

Ink that only penetrates the ______ will fade quickly.

epidermis

81

Pressure sores are also known as _____ ulcers.

decubitus

82

The _____ region of the dermis contains nerves, blood vessels, hair roots, and glands.

reticular

83

The epidermis gets its nutrients from the _____ loops in the papillary region.

capillary

84

Adipose tissue exists in large quantities in the ______ layer.

subcutaneous

85

_____% of the body surface has been burned if the anterior surfaces of both legs are affected.

18

86

The Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles found deep in the dermis detect ______.

vibration

87

Pain, cold, and warm stimuli are all detected by _____.

free nerve endings

88

Odorant chemicals produced by apocrine sweat glands are called ______.

pheromones

89

Rapidly dividing cells are found in the _____ and _____ matrices.

nail and hair

90

The medulla, cortex, and cuticle are all part of the hair root and the hair _____.

shaft

91

The anagen stage of hair growth is characterized by the _____ of the hair shaft.

growth

92

The telogen stage of hair growth is taking place when the hair shaft is _____.

resting

93

The fetal skin develops from the embryonic layer of tissue called the ______ (4th week).

ectoderm

94

Thermoregulation changes with age because of the redistribution of the _____ layer.

subcutaneous

95

The stratum ____ is the skin layer responsible for filling in superficial wounds.

corneum

96

Deep wounds extend into the epidermis and the _____.

dermis

97

The papillary region of the dermis houses the _____ corpuscles and free nerve endings.

Meissner

98

The palms, fingertips, and soles of the feet are considered to be ____ skin.

thick

99

A second-degree burn involves the epidermis and _____.

dermis.

100

A burn that involves loss of function, both layers of the skin, and even the subcutaneous layer is a _____ burn.

third-degree

101

Adipocytes are found in large quantities in the ____ layer.

subcutaneous

102

______ sweat glands are coiled tubular glands found on all surfaces of the body.

eccrine