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Flashcards in Module 6 Deck (63):
1

Compared to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells will have a ______.

true nucleus / membrane-bound nucleus

2

What prokaryotic cell structure regulated passage if materials into and out of the cell?

cell membrane

3

What is the role of the capsule found surrounding some prokaryotic cells?

It contributes to the cells ability to cause disease (pathogenicity)

4

What tiny, tube-like projections from the cell surface and are associated with the property of adherence for some organisms?

Pilus (fimbria)

5

What are plasmids?

segments of DNA outside its chromosome and contains information

6

What is the term to describe rod-shaped bacteria?

Bacillus

7

What is the term to describe a bacterium with a flexible, corkscrew shape?

Spirochete

8

What is the term that describes bacteria with a spherical shape?

Coccus

9

What compound term is used to describe chains of spherical bacteria?

Streptococci

10

Grape-like or irregular clusters of spherical bacteria are called ________.

staphylococci

11

Spherical bacteria arranged in pairs would be known as ________.

diplococci

12

A thin peptidoglycan layer would be indicative of a Gram-_______ bacterium.

negative

13

The reason there is a difference in the Gram stain is due to the ______ of the cell wall.

thickness

14

Under a light microscope, a Gram stain of a thick peptidoglycan wall would demonstrate a _____ color.

purple

15

Culture media that encourages growth of some organisms, but discourages others would be considered ________ media.

selective

16

One of the properties of differential growth media is that it can differentiate bacteria based on the fermentation of _______.

carbohydrates

17

Which type of culture media encourages the growth of many species of bacteria?

enriched

18

What type of organism would be destroyed in conditions of high atmospheric oxygen?

anaerobic

19

Aerobes would thrive in an environment that is rich in _______.

oxygen

20

The 4 phases of bacterial growth are ______, ______, ______, and ______.

lag,
log,
stationary,
decline / death

21

Bacteria reproduce by a process known as _______.

binary fission or
transverse fission

22

Exponential growth is evident in which phase of the bacterial growth curve?

log phase

23

When bacteria growth has stabilized to match its resources, it is in the ______ phase.

stationary

24

The term to describe the "living-together" relationship of organisms is _______.

symbiosis

25

Describe commensalism.

one organism benefits, the other is neutral

26

Describe mutualism.

both the host and the microorganism benefit

27

Describe parasitism.

one organism benefits, the other is harmed

28

Organisms that commonly live in or on the body and are usually not pathogenic are part of the body's _______.

normal flora

29

Pathogenicity is the organism's ability to _______.

cause disease

30

Virulence would be described as an organism's ability to ______.

cause severe disease

31

Hyaluronidase is an enzyme, which contributes to the _____ of a bacterium.

spread

32

Coagulase is an enzyme that accelerates ______ to cover an organism with fibrin.

clotting

33

Streptokinase and staphylokinase break down and prevent _______.

fibrin and clotting

34

Gram-positive organisms primarily secrete ______-toxins.

exo

35

As they die, Gram-negative bacteria release _____-toxins.

endo

36

Certain bacterial species can survive for very long periods of time as _______.

endospores

37

Newly synthesized nucleic acids are packaged into complete virons during the _______ stage of viral growth.

maturation

38

The return of an endospore to an active, metabolizing state is ________.

germination

39

A virus that can infect and transfer genetic material to a bacterium is called a _________.

bacteriophage (or phage)

40

Drug resistance is tranferred via a F-pilus (sex pilus) in the process of ______.

conjugation

41

A scolex and segments called proglottids are associated with which organism?

tapeworms (helminth)

42

A bacteriostatic antimicrobial drug ______ organism growth.

inhibits

43

A bacteriocidal antimicrobial drug will _____ an organism.

kill

44

A broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug is effective against both _____ and ______ microorganisms.

Gram-positive and Gram-negative

45

A _____ spectrum antimicrobial drug is effective against a limited number of microorganisms.

narrow

46

A large, clear zone surrounding an antibiotic disc on an agar plate indicates the organism is _____ to the antibiotic.

sensitive

47

The lack of a zone of inhibition on an antibiotic sensitivity test indicates that the organism is _____ to the antibiotic.

resistant

48

Streptococcus pyogenes is a common cause of ______.

strep throat

49

Mycoplasms lack a ________

cell wall

50

An insect that transmits an organism is called a _______.

vector

51

Bacteria that have different shapes and sizes are said to be _______.

pleomorphic

52

Chlamydia and Rickettsia are obligate, _______ microorganisms.

intracellular

53

The nucleic acid core of a virus is either _____ or _____ but never both.

DNA or RNA

54

A ______ is a protective coat that encloses the viral nucleic acid.

capsid

55

Viral replication involves the following steps:

1. Adsorption
2. Penetration
3. Synthesis
4. Maturation
5. Release

56

A virus that can reappear and produce disease symptoms is called a ____ virus.

Latent / persistent

57

A prion-related disease called bovine spongiform encephalopathy is more commonly known as _______.

mad cow disease

58

Brain tissue can be affected by infectious, misfolded proteins called ______.

prions

59

Ringworm is a type of ______ infection.

fungal

60

The motile, adult, invasive form of an infective protozoan is called a ________.

trophozoite stage

61

The dormant, infective stage of a protozoan is referred to as the ______.

cyst stage

62

A _____ host harbors the parasite when it reproduces by sexual reproduction.

definite

63

A host that is not part of the normal life cycle is called a ______ host.

accidental