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Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (115):
1

The defining feature of the scientific method is:
A. the results
B. a test of hypothesis
C. desired outcome
D. the data
E. a strong intuition

the data

2

Which of the following statements is false?
A. Scientific research leads to more questions
B. Science investigates only the natural world
C. Scientific research provides the truth
D. Science is based on evidence
E. Scientific ideas are testable

Scientific research provides the truth

3

Which of the following describes a well-tested scientific explanation?
A. data
B. hypothesis
C. empirical observation
D. law
E. theory

theory

4

A scientific hypothesis is:

a testable explanation of why something exists or operates as it does

5

Another term for "testable prediction" is:

hypothesis

6

Which order is a correct listing of the scientific method?
A. hypothesis, observation, theory
B. theory, hypothesis, observation
C. observation, theory, hypothesis
D. theory, observation, hypothesis
E. observation, hypothesis, theory

observation, hypothesis, theory

7

Physical science and life science are:
A. governed by different laws
B. governed by the same principles
C. making discoveries in one doesn't apply to the other
D. not using mathematics to test the data
E. not sharing the knowledge between disciplines

governed by the same principles

8

What process is primarily responsible for the movement of carbon from the atmosphere to living organisms?

Photosynthesis / autotrophy

9

The concept or paradigm which unifies all of the sciences today is ____________.

evolution

10

Which of the following perspectives is commonly held by scientist?
A. The world is stable, fixed, and unchanging.
B. The world is only 6,000 years old.
C. Change is only an illusion.
D. The world is dynamic and in constant change.
E. All things in the world can only be explained using supernatural causes.

The world is dynamic and in constant change.

11

Name an important element required for muscle contraction and bone integrity.

Calcium

12

Name an element that is vital to the formation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

Carbon

13

Name an element that is responsible for the activity of many enzymes (molecules that increase the rate of chemical reactions).

Magnesium

14

A substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution is a/an:

acid

15

Which element is a component of some vitamins and many proteins?

Sulfur

16

Which element is a metal and a component of hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying molecule in the blood)?

Iron

17

Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that retains the _____ of an element.

characteristics

18

This element is vital for the storage of energy (ATP).

Phosphorus

19

Substances with 2 or more different elements are classified as ________.

compounds

20

The physical state of matter that has a definite shape with tightly packed atoms/molecules is a ______.

solid

21

The physical state of matter that has an indefinite shape and definite volume with mobile molecules id a ____.

liquid

22

The physical state of matter that has indefinite volume with independent, widely spaced atoms/molecules is a _________.

gas

23

A body at rest with the ability to move has ______ energy.

potential

24

A body in motion is an example of ______ energy.

kinetic

25

Chemical reactions that build through chemical bonding are _______.

anabolic

26

Chemical reactions that deconstruct chemical bonds are ________.

catabolic

27

Endergonic chemical reactions require more _______ input that they will provide input.

energy

28

______-gonic reactions release more energy than they consume.

Exer

29

Measurement of disorder in a system is called _______.

entropy

30

1.000 cal/g C of water is also known as the ____ of water.

specific heat

31

Considering the mass of the human body, "H", "O", "____", and "C" are the 4 most abundant elements.

N (nitrogen)

32

The neutral subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom is called a ______.

neutron

33

Electrons have a _____ charge.

negative

34

Protons have a _______ charge.

positive

35

Changing the number of _______ will result in the formation of an isotope.

neutrons

36

The atomic number is equal to the number of ______ in an atom.

protons

37

Adding the number of protons and neutrons together equals the _____ number.

mass

38

Giving, taking, and/or sharing of ______ is responsible for chemical bonds.

electrons

39

Elements get their charge by losing of gaining ______.

electrons

40

An alpha particle is a _______.

helium nucleus

41

Beta particles are _____ expelled at high energy from radioactive atoms or a beta emitter.

electrons

42

High-energy photons are associated with ___-rays and ______ rays.

X;
gamma

43

Define an ion.

An atom that has gained or lost an electron

44

Define a cation.

A positively charged ion (has lost an electron)

45

An atom or molecule containing an unpaired electron is called a ______.

free radical

46

An atom that gains an electron is an ______.

anion

47

What is the name for OH-?

hydroxide

48

What is the name for HCO3-?

bicarbonate

49

What is the name for NH4-?

ammonium

50

Name the compound, KOH.

potassium hydroxide

51

A polar covalent bond occurs due to the ______sharing of electrons between 2 non-metals.

unequal

52

Covalent bonds tend to be ______ than ionic or hydrogen bonds.

stronger

53

Ionic bonds are formed when there is an attraction between a ____ and an ______.

cation;
anion

54

The hydrogen atom in a water molecule has a partial positive charge. Why?

It shares electrons with an oxygen atom, which has a partial negative charge.

55

Due to extensive hydrogen bonding between water molecules, water exhibits a high _______.

surface tension

56

H and O2 atoms are noud together inside cells as _____.

water

57

What type of bonds are formed due to the equal sharing of electrons between 2 nonmetals?

covalent

58

A substance referred to as a ______ reduces surface tension.

surfactant

59

Define a solute.

A substance that dissolves in a solvent.

60

If someone gave you a 15% NaCl solution, how many grams of NaCl do you have in 100mL of this solution?

15g/dL

61

A _____ consists of particles large enough to scatter light, but too large to pass through a dialysis membrane. The particles also remain dispersed in the medium.

colloid

62

A solution with a high H+ concentration is considered to be ______.

acidic

63

A solution with a high OH- concentration is considered to be _____.

basic / alkaline

64

A solution without H+ or OH- is considered to be a _______.

salt

65

Weak acids do not completely _____ in water.

break apart

66

Buffers maintain ____ balance within the body.

pH

67

The most important buffer system in the body is __________ buffering system.

carbonic acid / bicarbonate

68

On the pH scale, a solution with a pH at 7.0 has _____ concentration of H+ and OH-.

neutral

69

Which of the following is the most acidic?
A. 3
B. 4
C. 5
D. 6
E. 7

3

70

A solution with a pH above 7.0 would be considered _____.

basic / alkaline

71

Which of the following pH values has the highest concentration of OH- ions?
A. 2
B. 5
C. 7
D. 13

13

72

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Hydrogen?

H / 1

73

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Helium?

He / 2

74

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Lithium?

Li / 3

75

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Beryllium?

Be / 4

76

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Boron?

B / 5

77

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Carbon?

C / 6

78

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Nitrogen?

N / 7

79

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Oxygen?

O / 8

80

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Fluorine?

F / 9

81

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Neon?

Ne / 10

82

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Sodium?

Na / 11

83

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Magnesium?

Mg / 12

84

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Aluminum?

Al / 13

85

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Silicon?

Si / 14

86

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Phosphorus?

P / 15

87

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Sulfur?

S / 16

88

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Chlorine?

Cl / 17

89

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Argon?

Ar / 18

90

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Potassium?

K / 19

91

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Calcium?

Ca / 20

92

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Scandium?

Sc / 21

93

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Titanium?

Ti / 22

94

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Vanadium?

V / 23

95

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Chromium?

Cr / 24

96

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Manganese?

Mn / 25

97

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Iron?

Fe / 26

98

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Cobalt?

Co / 27

99

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Nickel?

Ni / 28

100

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Copper?

Cu / 29

101

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Zinc?

Zn / 30

102

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Gallium?

Ga / 31

103

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Germanium?

Ge / 32

104

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Arsenic?

As / 33

105

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Selenium?

Se / 34

106

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Bromine?

Br / 35

107

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Krypton?

Kr / 36

108

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Rubidium?

Rb / 37

109

What is the atomic symbol and atomic number for Strontium?

Sr / 38

110

A particle with atomic number 1 and atomic weight 1 (i.e. a hydrogen nucleus) is created through decay of a radioactive isotope. This particle is called a/an:

proton

111

Of the following, the longest wavelength electromagnetic wave is:

red light

112

Calcium forms ______ bonds in teeth and bones.

ionic

113

A key component of artificial kidneys are dialysis membranes. Dialysis membranes are semi-permeable membranes with pores just larger than atoms. Which of the following has the smallest particle size so that particles would pass through this membrane?
A. colloids
B. red blood cells
C. solutes
D. suspensions

solutes

114

The hydroxyl ion concentration of a solution is 10 -14 M and the hydrogen ion concentration is 10 0 M. The pH of the solution is:

0

115

Sulfuric acid highly dissociates in water while carbonic acid only weakly (partially) dissociates. Which is the stronger acid?

Sulfuric acid