Module 6 - Topic 3-4: The female Reproductive system and Embryo Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 6 - Topic 3-4: The female Reproductive system and Embryo Development Deck (123):
1

female reproductive system function

produces female gametes
female sex hormones
provides environment for foetal development

2

ovaries

paried female gonads
upper pelvic cavity
held in place by ligaments
site of gamete production

3

prolapsed uterus

when ligaments are weak
causes uterus to fall

4

oogenesis

doesnt occur continuously through life
at birth, ovaries contain all possible oocytes

5

oocytes

have stopped in prophase 1 of meiosis 1

6

menstrual cycle

1 gamete matures and is released from graafian follicle

7

meiosis 2 of oocytes

occurs if there is fertilisation

8

oogenesis

produces 1 functional gametes and 3 non viable polar bodies

9

Primordial follicle

highly vascularised stroma of ovaries
consists of oocyte and supporting cells
single layer of squamous cells

10

primary follicle

FSH stimulates follicular cells (primordial) to become cuboidal then stratified

11

granulosa cells

contain granules
surround primary follicle

12

secondary follicle

has fluid filled cavity
the antrum

13

graafin follicle

large fluid filled follicle
follicle bulges from surface of ovary

14

corpus luteum

yellow fibrous structure
remnants of ruptured graafian follicle
produces progesterone
promotes endometrium changes
assists implanation
degenerates to white fibrous tissue
remnants of follicle

15

corpus albicans

white fibrous tissue degenerated from corpus luteum

16

fallopian tubes

tubes linking ovaries to uterus
receives oocytes and provide site for fertilisation
contain fimbria, infundibulum and cilia

17

fimbriae

finger like projections at tip of infundibulum

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infundibulum

open funnel shaped portion of tube

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cilia

lining fallopian tubes propel egg to uterus

20

uterus

hollow thick walled organ
sits in pelvic cavity
receives and sustains fertilised ovum in endometrium

21

anteflexion

uterus normally projects anteriorly and superiorly over urinary bladder (points forward)

22

retroflexion

posterior tilting of uterus

23

bicornuate

double uterus

24

uterus didelphys

double vagina, uterus and cervix

25

uterus muscle

myometrium (smooth muscle)
endometrium

26

endometrium

2 layers
functional and basal layer

27

functional layr

lines lumen
sheds during menstruation

28

lumen

hollow interior of uterus

29

basal layer

permanent deeper layer of endometrium
contains uterine glands
forms new functional layer after shedding

30

endometriosis

endometrial cells migrate from endometrium and lodge into other areas
cells still shed each month and causes bleeding within the body

31

menarche

commence period

32

menopause

finish period

33

day 1

1st day of bleeding

34

day 14

ovulation

35

hormone regulation

progesterone and oestrogen variation promote changes to endometrium

36

Menstrual cycle

ovum moves towards and down fallopian tubes
ovum degrades and endometrium sheds if fertilisation doesnt occur

37

3 phases of menstrual cycle

menstrual
proliferative
secretory

38

menstrual phase

functional layer of endometrium is shed

39

proliferative phase

functional layer of endometrium is rebuilt

40

secretory phase

begins immediately after ovulation
enrichment of blood supply and glandular secretion of nutrients prepares endometrium to receive embryo

41

cervix

lower neck of uterus
2-3 cm long
has cervical canal

42

cervical canal

allows the menstrual blood to pass from uterus and sperm to pass into uterus

43

vagina

fibromuscular organ ending at the cervix
consists of inner mucosal layer, middle muscularis layer and outer adventitia

44

inner mucosal layer

stratified epithelium and connective tissue
large stores of glycogen breakdown to produce acidic pH

45

middle muscularis layer

smooth muscle that allows considerable stretch

46

outer adventitia

loose connective tissue that binds it to other organs

47

Vagina function

passageway for menstrual flow, intercourse and birth
opening is partially closed by hymen

48

hymen

fold of mucous and fibrous tissue that covers the entry of the vagina

49

mons pubis

fatty pad over pubis symphysis

50

labia majora and minora

folds of skin encircling vestibule where urethral and vaginal openings are

51

clitoris

smal mass of erectile tissue with multiple nerve endings

52

bulbs of vestibule

masses of erectile tissue deep into labia
forms internal part of clitoris

53

antrum

space between oocyte and surrounding follicular cells that is filled with fluid

54

ovulation

when antrum becomes so large and presses out developing follicle causing oocyte to burst through connective tissue capsule

55

Hormonal regulation

hypothalumus releases gnRH which stimulates FSH and LH production

56

FSH

stimulate development of ovarian follicles
lower levels of oestrogen

57

low levels of oestrogen

negative feedback effect on release of hypothalamus and pituitary hormones

58

14th day hormones

high quantities of oestrogen are produced by follicle that releases more FSH and LH

59

Large increase of LH

just after ovulation
stimulates primary oocyte to complete first meiotic division
supports development of corpus luteum

60

last 14 days of cycle

oestrogen and progesterone inhibit oogenesis, shutting down gnRh and FSh production and stimulate thickening of endometrium

61

absence of pregnancy

progestrone and oestrogen decline and endometrium sheds

62

if pregnancy occurs

placenta takes over hormone production
placenta produces HCG

63

HCG

maintains corpus luteum until placenta is mature enough to produce oestrogen and progestrone

64

human development - important processes

growth
differentation
morphogenesis

65

morphogenesis

change of overall shape and organisation of embryo

66

fertilisation

in fallopian tube
only one sperm will successfully penetrate

67

zona pellucida

outer glycoprotein coat of ova

68

acrosomal reaction

sperm releases digestive enzymes from acrosomal cap

69

cellular extension

from head of sperm
protrudes towards plasma membrane via actin filaments
docks the sperm surface receptors with ovum cell receptors and guides movement of sperm cell nucleus into cytoplasm of ovum

70

polyspermy

several sperm into single eg

71

mechanisms to stop polyspermy

fast block
slow block

72

fast block

electric fence
as one sperm enters, Na ions are released into ovum causing membrane to depolarise, preventing other sperm from entering

73

slow block

castle moat
calcium ions are released causing granules located under ovum membrane to spill enzyme into extracellular space between ovum and membrane
enzymes attract water so space fills up and detaches and washes away any other sperm

74

zonal inhibitory proteins

enzyme released by ovum granules that destroy sperm binding receptors and attract water

75

cleavage

first 4 cell divisions following fertilisation
without an increase in overall size

76

Morula

following cleavage
16 cell structure
surface is smoother due to compaction

77

compaction

boundaries between adjacent cells become less obvious as they become more adhesive

78

blastula

end of first week after fertilisation
embryonic cells have become organised into blastula which contains outer single layer of cells (trophoblast) and inner cell mass
trophoblast takes part in placenta formation
inner cell mass becomes embryonic disc

79

blastocyst cavity

seperate trophoblast layer and inner cell mass

80

Implanation

beggining of week 2
implanation of blastocyst into endometrium
outer trophoblast cells release enzymes that digest wall of endometrium
outer most cells of trophoblast begin to burrow into endometrium

81

syncytio-trophoblast

outermost cells of trophoblast

82

cyto-trophoblast

remaining inner components of trophoblasts

83

Gastrulation

cells of inner cell mass reorganise and give rise to 3 layer
ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm

84

ectoderm

outer layer
will give rise to:
epidermis of skin
epithelial cells that line start and end of GI tract
nervous system

85

mesoderm

middle layer
gives rise to:
musculo-skeletal system
circulatory system
sub epithelial layers of digestive and airways
dermis of skin
excretory system

86

endoderm

inner layer
epithelial lining of digestive tract and airways
associated glands

87

Neurulation

development of nervous system
region with ectoderm invaginates downwards towards mesoderm and eventually buds off into neural tube

88

anterior end of neural tube

develops into brain

89

posterior end of neural tube

develops into spinal cord

90

Amniotic sac

important extracellular membrane
surrounds developing embryo to provide support and protection
made from ectoderm

91

yolk sac

made from endoderm
where blood cells are formed and give rise to allantois

92

allantois

tubular structure that forms blood vessels of umblicial cord

93

chorionic membrane

made from mesoderm
splits into inner and outer layer

94

outer layer of chorion

combines with cytotrophoblast cells to form network of blood capillaries with placenta

95

inner layer of chorion

around amniotic membrane

96

Parturition (birth)

cells within foetus produce oxytocin which acts on placenta
placenta releases prostaglandins
increasing physical and emotional stress activates mother hypothalamus

97

last 2 weeks of pregnancy

oestrogen peaks which stimulates myometrium to form oxytocin receptors

98

prostaglandins and oxytocin role in birth

powerful uterine muscle stimulants

99

mother increasing hypothalamus activity

triggers posterior pituitary to secrete oxytocin and increase positive feedback

100

labor - hormones

decrease of progesterone and increase of hPL, hCT, oestrogen, oxytocin, relaxin and prostaglandins

101

relaxin

causes pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis to relax widen and become more flexible

102

hPL

stimulates maturation of breasts for lactation

103

hCT

ensures foetus has calcium for bone formation

104

true labor

uterine contractions occur at regular intervals

105

symptoms of true labor

contractions produce strong pain
contraction intervals shorten
contractions intensify
localisation of pain in back
discharge of bloody mucus
dilation of cervix

106

false labor

weak contractions
mild pain felt at irregular intervals

107

braxton hicks

irregular contractions

108

stage 1 of true labor

stage of dilation
from onset of labor to complete dilation of cervix
regular contractions of uterus
amniotic sac ruptures

109

stage 2 of true labor

stage of expulsion
from complete cervical dilation to delivery of baby

110

stage of true labor

placental stage
after delivery until placenta is expelled
contractions constrict blood vessels that were torn during delivery

111

foetus hormones - labor

secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine to provide protection against stress

112

puerperium

stage after birth when maternal organs return to pre preganacy stage

113

puerperium - key types

uterus reduces in size
cervix loses elasticity
lochia appears

114

lochia

uterine discharge that consists of blood and serous fluid

115

respiratory adjustments

blood carbon dioxide levels increase stimulating respiratory centre in brain
baby exhales vigourously

116

cardiovascular adjustments

foramen ovale between atria of heart closes
ductus arteriosus closes
umblical arteries become medial umblical ligaments and umblical vein becomes ligament of liver
oxygen use increases which stimulates increase in erthrocyte and hemoglobin production

117

Anencephaly

major portion of brain missing

118

neural groove

future spinal cord and brain

119

somites

bands of tissue becomes muscles and bones

120

pharyngeal arches

future neck, face, mouth and nose

121

relaxin

causes pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis to relax, widen and become more flexible

122

before ovulation - hormones

oestrogen increases from day 1 to just before ovulation when lh has large surge and smaller surge of fsh

123

after ovulation - hormones

Lh and FSH drop and progesterone surges