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Flashcards in msk anatomy Deck (126):
1

what spinal cord segments are the rotator cuff muscles innervated by?

C5-C6

2

what are the rotator cuff muscles

supraspinatus
infraspinatus
teres minor
subscapularis

3

what is the most common rotator cuff injury

supraspinatus

4

What rotator cuff muscle is injured in a pitching injury and what nerve innervates this muscle

infraspinatus muscle
suprascapular nerve

5

supraspinatus muscle action

abducts arm initially (then deltoid abducts)

6

infraspinatus muscle action

laterally rotates arm

7

teres minor muscle action

adducts and laterally rotates

8

subscapularis muscle action

medially rotates arm and adducts arm

9

empty/cull can test

supraspinatus

10

supraspinatus is innervated by:

suprascapular nerve

11

infraspinatus is innervated by

suprascapular nerve

12

teres minor is innervated by

axillary nerve

13

subscapular muscle is innervated by

upper and lower subscapular nerves

14

repetitive flexion of elbow

golfers elbow = medial epicondylitis

15

repetitive extension of elbow

tennis elbow = lateral epicondylitis

16

golfers elbow

medial epicondylitis - forehand shots = flexion

17

tennis elbow

lateral epicondylitis - backhand shots = extension

18

most commonly fractured carpal bone

scaphoid

19

what wrist bone is prone to avascular necrosis?

scaphoid

20

why is the scaphoid bone prone to avascular necrosis?

retrograde blood supply from radial artery

21

A fall on an outstretched hand that damages the hook of the hamate can cause what nerve injury?

ulnar

22

ulnar nerve injury can be caused by injuring what bone?

hook of the hamage

23

dislocation of what bone can cause acute carpal tunnel?

dislocation of lunate

24

guyon canal syndrome is compression of what nerve?

ulnar nerve in write or hand

25

what four states is carpal tunnel associated with?

pregnancy, rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, repeated use

26

what nerve is carpal tunnel associatd with

median nerve

27

what ligament encloses carpal tunnel

transverse carpal ligament

28

what entrapment is seen in cyclists and why

ulnar nerve - guyon canal syndrome = due to pressure from handlebars

29

fracturing the surgical neck of the humerus can damage what nerve

axillary

30

anterior dislocation of humerus can cause damage of what nerve

axillary

31

what spinal nerves correlate with axillary nerve

C5-C6

32

Flattened deltoid

axillary nerve injury

33

Axillary nerve is associated with what muscle

deltoid

34

Loss of arm abduction at shoulder > 15 degrees is a finding in what nerve injury

axillary

35

loss of sensation over deltoid muscle and lateral arm

axillary nerve damage

36

musculocutaneous nerve comes from what two spinal nerves

C5-C7

37

upper trunk compression causes what nerve injury

musculocutaneous

38

Musculocutaneous nerve is associated with what muscle

biceps

39

loss of forearm flexion

musculocutaneous

40

loss of forearm supination

musculocutaneous

41

Loss of sensation over lateral forearm

musculocutaneous

42

Radial nerve is associated with what spinal nerves

C5-T1

43

Midshaft fracture of humerus

radial nerve injury

44

compression of axilla - crutches, sleeping with arm over chair

radial nerve injury

45

radial head subluxation (nursemaids elbow) is an injury where and damages what nerve

lateral epicondyle, can damage radial nerve

46

loss of elbow, wrist and finger extension (WRIST DROP)

RADIAL NERVE

47

loss of sensation over posterior arm / forearm and dorsal hand

radial arm

48

decreased grip strength

radial nerve

49

radial nerve is associated with what muscles

wrist extensors

50

supracondylar fracture of humerus

median nerve injury

51

median nerve is associated with what spinal nerves

C5-T1

52

wrist laceration

median nerve injury

53

loss of wrist flexion

median nerve injury, ulnar nerve injury

54

loss of flexion of lateral fingers

median nerve injury

55

loss of sensation over thenar eminence and dorsal/palmar aspects of lateral 3 and a half fingers

median nerve injury

56

Tinel sign

tingling on percussion
- sign for carpal tunnel

57

sign for carpal tunnel

tinel sign - tingling on percussion

58

fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus

ulnar nerve lesion

59

radial deviation of wrist upon flexion

ulnar nerve lesion

60

ulnar nerve is made from what spinal nerves

C8-T1

61

what nerve is affected in the "funny bone"

ulnar nerve

62

loss of sensation over hypothenar eminence and medial 1 and a half fingers

ulnar nerve injury

63

superficial laceration of palm

recurrent branch of median nerve

64

recurrent branch of median nerve = what spinal nerves

C5-T1

65

loss of thenar muscle group (opposition abduction flexion of thumb)

recurrent branch of median nerve lesion

66

the only upper extremity nerve with only motor loss but no sensation loss

recurrent branch of the median nerve

67

job of lumbricals

flexion at MCP
extension of DIP and PIP

68

obturator nerve comes from what spinal nerves

L2-L4

69

pelvic surgery can damage what nerve

obturator nerve

70

decreased medial thigh sensation

obturator nerve

71

decreased thigh adduction

obturator nerve

72

decreased thigh flexion

femoral

73

femoral nerve comes from what spinal nerves

L2-L4

74

Decreased leg (not hip) extension

femoral nerve

75

trauma or compression of lateral aspect of leg

common peroneal nerve (fibular)

76

fibular neck fracture

common peroneal (fibular)

77

common peroneal nerve spinal levels

L4-S2

78

loss of sensation on the dorsum of the foot

common peroneal

79

loss of eversion and dorsiflexion

common peroneal

80

foot drop (inverted and plantar flexed at rest)

common peroneal

81

tibial nerve spinal nerve levels

L4-S3

82

knee trauma

tibial

83

baker cyst

tibial = proximal

84

tarsal tunnel syndrome

tibial = distal

85

inability to curl toes

tibial

86

loss of sensation on sole of foot

tibial

87

loss of inversion and plantarflexion

proximal tibial

88

superior gluteal spinal nerve

L4-S1

89

Inferior gluteal spinal nerve

L5-S2

90

iatrogenic injury during intramuscular injury to upper medial gluteal region

superior gluteal

91

superior gluteal injury can happen with injection to what quadrant of the glutesss

upper medial gluteal region

92

primary abductors of the hip

gluteus medius and gluteus minimus

93

adductors of the hip

adductor magnus
adductor brevis
adductor longus
(MLB)

94

hip flexors

iliopsoas
rectus femoris
tensor fascae latae

95

hip extension

gluteus maximus
semitendinosus
semimembranosus
biceps femoris

mbss

96

trandelenburg sign

pelvis tilts because weight bearing leg cannot maintain alignment of pelvis through hip abduction
superior gluteal nerve injury

97

posterior hip dislocation

inferior gluteal nerve

98

difficulty climbing stairs

inferior gluteal

99

difficulty rising from seated position

inferior gluteal

100

loss of hip extension

inferior gluteal

101

inferior gluteal nerve innervates what muscle

gluteus maximus

102

superior gluteal nerve innervates what muscles

gluteus medius and minimus

103

what nerve innervates the posterior thigh

sciatic nerve

104

what nerve innervates the perineum

pudendal

105

what nerve is blocked during childbirth

pudendal

106

what is the landmark for finding the pudendal nerve

ischial spine

107

where do intervertebral disks generally herniate and why?

posterolaterally because os the thin posterior longitudinal ligament vs. thicker anterior longitudinal ligament along midline of vertebral bodies

108

decreased patellar reflex means what nerves are impinged

L3-L4

109

weakness of knee reflex means what nerves are impinged

L3-L4

110

weakness of dorsiflexion means what nerves are impinged

L4-L5

111

difficulty in heel-walking means what nerves are impinged

L4-L5

112

weakness of plantar flexion means what nerves are impinged

L5-S1

113

difficulty in toe walking means what nerves are impinged

L5-S1

114

decreased achilles reflex means what nerves are impinged

L5-S1

115

long thoracic nerve is paired with what artery

lateral thoracic artery

116

lateral thoracic artery is paired with what nerve

long thoracic nerve

117

axillary nerve is paired with what artery

posterior circumflex artery

118

posterior circumflex artery is paired with what nerve

axillary nerve

119

radial nerve is paired with what artery

deep brachial artery

120

deep brachial artery is paired with what nerve

radial nerve

121

median nerve is paired with what artery

brachial artery

122

brachial artery is paired with what nerve

median nerve

123

tibial nerve is paired with what artery in the popliteal fossa

popliteal artery

124

popliteal artery is paired with what nerve

tibial nerve

125

tibial nerve is paired with what artery posterior to the medial malleolus

posterior tibial artery

126

posterior tibial artery is paired with what nerve

tibial nerve