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Flashcards in renal Deck (129):
1

pronephros degenerate when

week 4

2

mesonephros contribute to

male genital system

3

when do mesonephros function

function as kidney for 1st trimester

4

when do metanephros appear

5th week

5

where is the ureteric bud derived from

caudal end of mesonephric duct

6

by what week is the ureteric bud / collecting system fully canalized?

10th week

7

what does the ureteric bud give rise to

ureters
pelvis
calyces
collecting ducts

8

interaction between mesonephros (ureteric bud) and metanephric mesenchyme leads to formation of what

glomerulus through DCT

9

what is last to be recanalized

ureteropelvic junction

10

what is the most common site of obstruction + hydronephros in fetus

ureteropelvic junction because it is the last to recanalize

11

most common cause of death in fetus with potter sequence

respiratory failure due to pulmonary hypoplasia

12

multicystic dysplastic kidney occurs because of what

abnormal interaction between urereteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme

13

what causes potter sequence

oligohydramnios due to failure of ureteric buds to develop

14

what rib injury could damage kidney

11 or 12

15

what kidney is taken during donor transplant and why

left because it has a longer renal vein

16

macula densa cells live inside what part of kidney

DCT

17

what cells secrete renin

juxtaglomerular cells

18

what charge do glomerular basement membranes have and why

negative to prevent proteins from escaping

19

what do the ureters pass under in females

uterine artery

20

what do the ureters pass under in males

vas deferens

21

where do JG cells live

in the afferent arteriole

22

what spinal level are the kidneys at

T12 through L3

23

what kidney is larger

left

24

where is the location of the kidneys in relation to one another

right kidney is lower and `more lateral than the left due to the liver

25

what molecule can approximate plasma volume

albumin

26

what molecule can approximate extracellular volume

inulin

27

how much of body weight is fluid

60%

28

how much of body fluid is ECF

20%

29

how much of body fluid is ICF

40%

30

How much of ECF is plasma volume

25%

31

how much ECF is interstitial fluid

75%

32

what makes basement membrane negatively charged

heparan sulfate

33

what is the size barrier in glomerulus

fenestrated capillary endothelium

34

renel clearance equation

C=UV/P

35

what substances predict GFR

inulin and creatinine

36

normal GFR

100 mL/min

37

if creatinine is used to estimate GFR, is it accurate?

slightly overestimates GFR

38

relationship between GFR and creatinine

every time GFR is cut in half, creatinine doubles

39

RPF is estimated by

PAH

40

eRPF underestimates RPF by how much

10%

41

RBF equation in terms of hematocrit

RPF/1-Hct

42

FF equation

GFR/RPF

43

normal FF

20%

44

filtered load equation

GFR x plasma concentration

45

excretion rate equation

E=UV

46

reabsorption equation

R= filtered - excreted

47

secretion equation

S= excreted- filtered

48

at what glucose level does glucosuria start

200 mg/dL

49

at what glucose level are all the glucose transporters saturated

375 mg/dL

50

hartnup inheritance

autosomal recessive

51

hartnup etiology

deficiency of neutral amino acid transporters in the PCT and on enterocytes = lose tryptophan --> niacin deficiency --> pellagra

52

rx. hartnup

high protein diet and nicotinic acid

53

3 Ds of pellagra

diarrhea
dementia
dermatitis

54

how is glucose reabsorbed and where

in the PCT via Na glucose cotransporter

55

how does osmolarity of filtered fluid change in PCT

no change - isotonic reabsorption

56

thin descending loop of henle reabsorbs what

water only - concentrating segment

57

how does the thin descending loop reabsorb water

passively due to medullary hypertonicity

58

ADH works on what cell type

principal cells

59

expired tetracyclines can cause what

fanconi syndrome

60

tenofovir can cause

fanconi syndrome

61

where is defect in fanconi

PCT

62

inheritance of bartter syndrome

autosomal recessive

63

inheritance of gitelman syndrome

autosomal recessive

64

inheritance of liddle syndrome

autosomal dominant

65

metabolic symptoms in fanconi

metabolic acidosis (losing bicarb)

66

metabolic symptoms in bartter

hypokalemia (losing K) and hypercalciuria (losing Ca)
metabolic alkalosis

67

bartter affects what channels

Na-K-Cl transporter in the thick ascending loop

68

Gitelman is a defect in what part of the nephron

DCT (Na Cl reabsorption)

69

liddle syndrome is associated with what type of mutation

gain of function (increased Na+ reabsorption via ENaCs in the collecting tubule)

70

Rx liddle syndrome

Amiloride

71

only renal tubular defect to cause hypercalciuria

bartter

72

only renal tubular defect to cause acidosis

fanconi

73

syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess is actually an excess of _____, why?

cortisol - because deficiency of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that normally converts cortisol --> cortisone

74

syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess can be acquired from what food

licorice (glycyrrhetic acid)

75

what makes ACE

endothelial cells of pulmonary vasculature

76

what cells sense decreased bp

juxtaglomerular

77

what cells sense decreased Na

macula densa

78

JG cells are what type of cells

modified smooth muscle cells

79

where is EPO released from

interstitial cells in peritubular capillary bed

80

what part of nephron converts vit d to active form

PCT

81

how do prostaglandins affect the nephron

vasodilate the afferent arteriole

82

where does PTH affect nephron

DCT (increased Ca reabsorption) and less PO4 reabsorption (PCT)

83

ANP net effect in nephron

Na+ loss and volume loss

84

wide QRS, peaked T waves

hyperkalemia

85

tetany

hypocalcemia

86

QT prolongation

hypocalcemia

87

torsades de pointes

hypomagnesemia

88

stones bones groans overtones

hypercalcemia

89

u waves on ecg

hypokalemia

90

flattened T waves

hypokalemia

91

decreased DTR

hypermagnesemia

92

muscle weakness

hyperkalemia

93

how does pH relate to hco3- and pco2

pH is proportional to HCO3/pCO2

94

how to calculate anion gap

anion gap = Na-Cl - HCO3

95

dysplastic kidney inheritance

not inherited

96

AR PKD presents when

presents in infants

97

AD PKD presents when

presents in young adults

98

dysplastic kidney vs. PKD

dysplastic kidney usually has abnormal tissue in the parenchyma (like cartilage)

99

ARPKD presentation

kid with portal hypertension (due to hepatic cysts)

100

ADPKD presentation

hypertension (too much renin), hematuria, renal failure, associated with berry aneurysms and hepatic cysts and MVP

101

main cause of death in ADPKD

berry aneurysm

102

mutations that lead to ADPKD

APKD1 and APKD2

103

PKD presents with what kind of kidneys

enlarged

104

medullary cystic kidney disease presentation

shrunken kidneys with parenchymal fibrosis

105

medullary cystic kidney disease inheritance

autosomal dominant

106

most common renal congenital anomaly

horseshoe kidney

107

unilateral renal agenesis causes what in the other kidney

hypertrophy of other kidney + renal failure later in life

108

most common ADPKD mutation

PKD1, chr. 16

109

less common ADPKD mutation

PKD2, chr 4

110

shrunken kidneys on ultrasound

medullary cystic kidney disease

111

majority of all renal masses are what

simple cysts (filled with ultrafiltrate)

112

2 areas of nephron susceptible to ischemia

PCT and medullary Thick ascending limb

113

most common cause of acute tubular necrosis

aminoglycosides

114

how to prevent acute tubular necrosis

hydration and allopurinol

115

eosinophils in urine

acute interstitial nephritis

116

4 things that can lead to renal papillary necrosis

1) sickle cell
2) severe pyelonephritis
3) diabetes
4) long term analgesic use (phenacetin, aspirin)

117

most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in caucasian adult

membranous nephyropathy

118

nephrotic syndrome associated with hodgkins

minimal change disease

119

spike and dome appearance

membranous nephropathy

120

tram track appearance

membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

121

nephrotic presentation of SLE

membranous nephropathy

122

kimmelsteil wilson lesion

DM

123

first sign of DM

microalbuminuria

124

acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis is what kind of HS

3

125

subepithelial immune complex hump

PSGN

126

crescent moon shaped LM and IF

RPGN

127

crescents in RPGN are made from

fibrin and macrophages

128

most common cause of death in lupus patients

DPGN

129

wire looping of capillaries

DPGN