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Flashcards in repro Deck (100):
1

ovaries lymph drainage

para aortic

2

testes lymph drainage

para aortic

3

vagina lymph drainage

superficial inguinal

4

vulva lymph drainage

superficial inguinal

5

scrotum lymph drainage

superficial inguinal

6

proximal vagina lymph drainage

obturator/external iliac/hypogastric

7

uterus lymph drainage

obturator/external iliac/hypogastric

8

what ligament contains ovarian vessels

suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic)

9

what ligament contains uterine vessels

cardinal ligament

10

what vessels are ligated during oopherectomy

ovarian vessels, contained in the suspensory ligament

11

what ligament contains the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the round ligament of uterus

broad ligament

12

what ligament is a derivative of gubernaculum?

round ligament and ovarian ligament

13

what ligament connects labia majora to uterine fundus

round ligament

14

most common area for cervical cancer

squamocolumnar junction (transition zone)`

15

membranous urethra is prone to injury from what

pelvic fracture

16

bulbar urethra is prone to injury from what

blunt force

17

injury of the posterior urethra can cause urine to leak where

retropubic space

18

what part of urethra is at risk of injury due to a straddle injury

anterior urethra

19

if anterior urethra is injured, where will urine leak

beneath buck fascia (deep)

20

if buck fascia is torn and there is urethral injury, where will urine leak

superficial perineal space

21

what nerve causes erection

pelvic nerve

22

what nerve causes penile emmision

hypogastric

23

what nerve causes ejaculation

pudendal nerve

24

remnant of mesonephric duct in females

gartner duct

25

incomplete fusion of them mullerian ducts

bicornuate uterus

26

complete failure of fusion

double uterus/vagina/cervic - pregnancy IS possible

27

females with mullerian defects should undergo ultrasound to see if they have what abnormalities?

urologic (renal)

28

failure of urethral folds to fuse

hypospadias

29

faulty positioning of the genital tubercle

epispadias

30

epispadias is associated with what other abnormality

bladder exstrophy

31

hypospadias is associated with what other abnormliaties

inguinal hernia, cryptorchidism

32

how do estrogen receptors work

expressed in cytoplasm and translocate to nucleus when bound by estrogen

33

how does estrogen affect myometrial excitability

increases

34

what enzyme does LH stimulate in females to produce estrogen

desmolase (produces androgens in theca cell from cholesterol)

35

what hormone increases basal body temperature

progesterone

36

precocious puberty is the development of sex characteristics before age what

7

37

oligomenorrhea is a cycle how long

>35 days

38

polymenorrhea is a cycle how long

39

how long is luteal phase

14 days

40

how long is follicular phase

varies

41

what defines menorrhagia

heavy menstrual bleeding > 80 mL or >7 days

42

ovulation occurs when

14 days before menses always

43

what week does gastrulation occur

3

44

what weeks are organogenesis

weeks 3-8, embryonic period

45

when does the neural tube close by

week 4

46

when do the upper and lower limb buds form

week 4

47

when is fetal cardiac activity visible by transvaginal ultrasound

week 6

48

when does the heart start to beat

week 4

49

when can you sense fetal movement

week 8

50

when does the fetus have male/female characteristics

week 10

51

what is gastrulation

formation of trilaminar disc

52

leading cause of intellectual disability in US

fetal alcohol syndrome

53

mechanism of abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome

abnormal cell migration

54

what secretes bhCG

snycytiotrophoblast

55

dizygotic twins are always what

dichorionic and diamnionic

56

twins that split between 0-4 days will be

dichorionic and diamnionic

57

twins that split between 4-8 days

monochorionic and diamnionic

58

twins that split between 8-12 days

monochorionic and diamnionic

59

twins that split >13 days

conjoined; monochorionic and monoamnionic

60

conjoined twins are most likely to be joined where

chest

61

what stimulates corpus luteum to make progesterone in first trimester

beta HCG from syncytiotrophoblast

62

syncytiotrophoblast lacks what to decrease attach by maternal immune system

MHC I

63

what is the maternal part of placenta known as

decidua basalis

64

umblical arteries and vein are derived from what

allantois

65

urine discharge from umbilicus

failure of urachus to obliterate (patent urachus)

66

urachus attaches what

umblicus to bladder

67

urachal cysts can progress to what

infection and adenocarcinoma

68

what week does the urachus turn into allantois

3

69

what week does the vitelline duct obliterate

7

70

vitelline duct connets what

yolk sac to midgut lumen

71

meconium discharge from umblicus

vitelline fistula

72

maxillary artery is a branch of what

external carotid

73

1st aortic arch becomes

maxillary artery

74

2nd aortic arch becomes

stapedial and hyoid arteries

75

3rd aortic arch becomes

common carotid and proximal part of internal carotid

76

4th aortic arch becomes

left: aortic arch
right: subclavian artery

77

5th aortic arch becomes:

degraded

78

6th aortic arch becomes

pulmonary arteries and on the left, ductus arteriosus

79

branchial cleft/grooves are derived from

ectoderm

80

branchial arches are derived from

mesoderm and neural crest

81

branchial pouches are derived from

endoderm

82

first branchial cleft becomes

external auditory meatus

83

2nd through 4th clefts become

temporary cervical sinuses, obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme

84

how does a persistent cervical sinus present

branchial cleft cyst within lateral neck

85

polyhydramnios is how much amniotic fluid

1.5-2 or more

86

oligohydramnios is how much amnionic fluid

87

most common gynecological cancer worldwide

cervical

88

most to least common gynecological cancer in US

endometrial > ovarian > cervical

89

prognosis worst to best of gynecological cancer

ovarian > cervical > endometrial

90

cancer from lower 1/3 of vagina spreads to what lymph nodes

inguinal

91

cancer form upper 2/3 of vagina spreads to what lymph nodes

regional iliac nodes

92

embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma stain for what two immunohistochemicals

desmin and myogenin

93

most common ovarian mass in young women

follicular cyst

94

drug for prostate cancer and MOA

flutamide - nonsteroidal competitive inhibitor at androgen receptor

95

drug for endometriosis

danazol

96

danazol MOA

partial agonist at androgen and progesterone receptors (decreases LH and FSH)

97

danazol side effects

hirsutism, virilazation (androgenic side effects)

98

finasteride MOA

5 alpha reductase inhibitor

99

anastrazole/exemestane MOA

aromatase inhibitors used in postmenopausal women with ER positive breast cancer

100

side effects of tamoxifen

increased risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer