MT Review WK1-3 Flashcards Preview

Spring 2013 / Herbs 1 > MT Review WK1-3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in MT Review WK1-3 Deck (81):
0

What is the Divine Husbandman's Classic of the Materia Medica in pinyin?

Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing

1

What two theories do we get from Huang di Nei Jing?

Yin Yang
Five Elements

3

Who was said to be intoxicated 70 times a day, and what does that mean?

Shen Nong
experimental use of medicinal substances

4

What are the three categories of herbs in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing?

Superior
Intermediate
Inferior

5

What are the characteristics of herbs in the Superior category?

- non-toxic
- contain invigorating effects to preserve vitality or prolong life

6

What are the characteristics of herbs in the Inferior category?

- toxic with side effects
- used specifically for therapeutic purposes to treat disease

7

What are the characteristics of herbs in the Intermediate category?

- prevent illness & restore vitality
- sometimes toxic - use carefully

7

What book did Zhang Zhong Jing write?

Shang Han Za Bing Lun

8

What is the translation of Shang Han Za Bing Lun?

Discourse on Fevers and Miscellaneous Illness

9

Who wrote the Discourse on Fevers and Miscellaneous Illness?

Zhang Zhong Jing

10

What is the theoretical principle on which the chapters of Shang Han Za Bing Lun are based?

six channel theory

11

What is the primary disease factor in Shang Han Za Bing Lun?

Cold

12

What two books is Zhang Zhong Jing's text divided into?

- Shang Han Lun
- Jin Gui Yao Lue

13

What is the translation of Shang Han Lun?

Treatise on Febrile Diseases

14

What is the translation of Jin Gui Yao Lue?

Essential Treasures from the Golden Cabinet

15

What is the Wen Bing Xue?

Warm Disease School

16

What is the primary disease factor in Wen Bing Xue?

Heat

17

What are the four levels of disease?

Wei
Qi
Ying
Xue

18

What are the five tastes + additional tastes?

Acrid
Sweet
Bitter
Sour
Salty
Bland
Aromatic
Astringent

19

What are the Four Qi?

also called Temperature Characteristics (really 5):
Hot, Cold, Warm, Cool, Neutral

21

Acrid: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?

·disperses (out and upward)
·enters the LU
·disperse and move (release the exterior)

22

Sweet: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?

·brings in and gathers
·enters the SP
·tonify, harmonize, nourish, strengthen, moderate (sometimes thought to moisten)

23

Bitter: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?

·downward-draining, purging, descending
·enters HT
·dries damp, stabilizes, binds, contains, holds

24

Salty: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?

·purges downwards (heaviest substance, besides minerals)
·enters KD
·softens hardness (good for constipation)

24

Sour: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?

·stabilize and bind
·enters the LV
·astringe / hold / contract - can prevent or reverse the abnormal leakage of fluids and energy

25

Bland: What is it's function and movement?

·leach out dampness & promote urination
·mild downward direction (less severe than bitter or salty)

26

Astringent: What tastes can it be? What is its function?

·includes sour and sweet
·retains and binds
·has ability to prevent leakage of fluids
·more sensation than flavor

27

What two tastes combined can produce Yin?

Sour and Sweet

28

Aromatic: What is its function and how does it move?

·moves in all directions
·penetrates through turbidity & eliminates damp
·awakens & revives

30

What two tastes combined can produce Yang?

Acrid and Sweet

31

What are the six channels?

Tai Yang - Shao Yang - Yang Ming
Tai Yin - Shao Yin - Jue Yin

32

How do Sinking and Lowering herbs treat?

·clear heat
·purge
·promote urination
·calm mind
·descend yang
·stop vomiting, cough, asthma
·astringe
·promote digestion

33

How do Floating and Ascending herbs treat?

·expel superficial evils
·ascend Yang
·expel Wind and Cold
·induce vomiting
·open the orifices
·promote eruptions
·warm yang

33

What are the Shao Yang channels and what kind of diseases happen here?

SJ - Hand
GB - foot
1/2 exterior & 1/2 interior

34

What are the Tai Yang Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?

SI - Hand
UB - Foot
exterior cold diseases

35

What are the 8 paramaters?

Exterior/Interior
Hot/Cold
Excess/Deficiency
Yang/Yin

36

What are the Tai Yin channels and what kind of diseases happen here?

LU - Hand
SP - Foot
treat LU & SP pathologies

37

What are the Yang Ming Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?

LI - Hand
ST - Foot
interior excess diseases

38

What are the Jue Yin Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?

PC - Hand
LV - Foot
reverting

39

What are the Shao Yin Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?

HT - Hand
KI - Foot
treat HT & KI pathologies

40

What therapeutic method would you use for Yang Ming organ constipation?

purge

41

What are the 8 therapeutic methods?

promote sweating
induce vomiting
purge
harmonize
warm
clear
tonify
reduce

42

What therapeutic method would you use for Yang Ming channel excess (4 bigs)?

Clear Heat

43

What therapeutic method would you use to treat Wind Cold Excess?

promote sweating

44

What herbs are typically dosed higher?

·hard, heavy, moderate and bland substances
·minerals and shells

45

What is the classical dosage measurement and modern equivalent?

1 qian
~3 grams

46

What are other factors that effect dosage?

·severity of the problem (higher dosage if more severe)
·constitution of patient
·patient's ST Qi
·patient's age

47

What herbs are typically dosed in lower amounts?

·light, toxic, strongly flavored substances
·flowers, leaves, aromatic herbs

48

What is the common dosage range?

3-9g

49

What is Mutual Enhancement?

the combination of 2 or more substances with different actions in which one of the substances enhances the effect of the other in a specific clinical situation

50

What is Mutual Accentuation?

the combination of 2 substances with similar functions to accentuate their therapeutic actions

51

What is Mutual Suppression?

converse of mutual counteraction in that here one substance also reduces the undesirable side effects of another

52

What is Mutual Counteraction?

a combination in which the toxicity or side effects of one substance are reduced or eliminated by another substance

53

What is Mutual Incompatibility?

occurs when the combination of 2 substances gives rise to side effects or toxicity which would not be caused by either substance when used alone

54

What is Mutual Antagonism?

the ability of 2 substances to minimize or neutralize each other's positive effects

55

In formulas, what is the Deputy's function?

to enhance or assist the therapeutic actions of the chiefs

56

In a formula, what is the Chief?

the substance that provides the main therapeutic thrust of the prescription

57

What is Pao Zhi?

any type of herb processing

58

In a formula, what does the Envoy do?

guides the other medicines to a specific channel or organ OR exerts a harmonizing influence

59

What are the most basic way to prepare and herb and why do we do this?

·pulverize or slice to increase surface area
·release more constituents into the decoction

60

In formulas, what do the Assistants do?

·treat accompanying symptoms
·moderate the harshness or toxicity of the primary substances
·assist the chief and deputies in accomplishing their main objective
·provide assistance from another therapeutic direction
·one or more of the above

61

Why Do we Dry Fry with salt?

directs herbs actions downward to the Kidneys

62

Why is Dry Frying used?

·dry herbs for storage
·also increases SP awakening, ST strengthening action

63

What action is increased when frying with Honey?

tonifying and moistening actions

64

Why do we Dry Fry until herb is Charred?

increases herbs hemostatic ability (to stop bleeding)

65

What actions are increased when frying with Vinegar?

astringent, analgesic, blood invigorating and detoxifying actions

66

What are the four liquids herbs are fried with?

Honey
VInegar
Wine
Ginger Juice

67

What actions are enhanced when frying with Ginger Juice?

·reduces tendency of bitter and cold herbs to upset the ST
·enhances ability to warm ST and stop vomiting

68

What actions are increased when frying with Wine?

·ability to clear blockages from the channels
·expel wind
·alleviate pain

69

Which method of delivery is strongest, middle, weakest?

Decoction - Granules - Pills

70

What is Calcining? and What is Calcined?

- placing a substance directly or indirectly in the flames until it is thoroughly heated and turns red
- makes the substance brittle and easy to pulverize
- used for: minerals, shells

71

What type of herbs are added near the end?

·aromatic herbs
·Da Haung - to have purgative effect

72

How long is a Decoction generally cooked for? In what situations doe we cook for longer/shorter periods of time?

· 20-30 minutes - normal
·10-15 minutes if formula that Release the Exterior, Clear Heat or contains herbs w/ volatile oils
·45-60 minutes if formula has rich, cloying herbs
·45+ minutes for toxic herbs, to reduce toxicity

73

What herbs are bagged in gauze?

·herbs with cilia
·small seeds
·some minerals
·powders

74

What types of herbs are decocted first?

·toxic herbs - to reduce toxicity
·minerals, shells - to soften and aid digestion
·lightweight substances in large dosage - to make room in pot

75

What type of substances are dissolved in a strained decoction?

highly viscous pr sticky substances, to keep them from sticking to the pot or other herbs

76

What types of substances are decocted separately?

rare and expensive substances

77

What are the two types of drug interactions?

·pharmacokinetic interaction
·pharmacodynamic reaction

78

What kind of substances are taken with a strained decoction

- expensive, aromatic substances are ground into a powder and taken first, followed by strained decoction
- also, rare animal horns

79

What is a pharmacodynamic reaction?

when two drugs / herbs alter the way in which a drug or herb effects a tissue or organ system (can be either synergistic or antagonistic)

80

What is a pharmacokinetic interaction?

when two drugs / herbs change absorption, distribution, metabolism or elimination of the other