Flashcards in MT Review WK1-3 Deck (81):
What is the Divine Husbandman's Classic of the Materia Medica in pinyin?
Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing
What two theories do we get from Huang di Nei Jing?
Who was said to be intoxicated 70 times a day, and what does that mean?
experimental use of medicinal substances
What are the three categories of herbs in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing?
What are the characteristics of herbs in the Superior category?
- contain invigorating effects to preserve vitality or prolong life
What are the characteristics of herbs in the Inferior category?
- toxic with side effects
- used specifically for therapeutic purposes to treat disease
What are the characteristics of herbs in the Intermediate category?
- prevent illness & restore vitality
- sometimes toxic - use carefully
What book did Zhang Zhong Jing write?
Shang Han Za Bing Lun
What is the translation of Shang Han Za Bing Lun?
Discourse on Fevers and Miscellaneous Illness
Who wrote the Discourse on Fevers and Miscellaneous Illness?
Zhang Zhong Jing
What is the theoretical principle on which the chapters of Shang Han Za Bing Lun are based?
six channel theory
What is the primary disease factor in Shang Han Za Bing Lun?
What two books is Zhang Zhong Jing's text divided into?
- Shang Han Lun
- Jin Gui Yao Lue
What is the translation of Shang Han Lun?
Treatise on Febrile Diseases
What is the translation of Jin Gui Yao Lue?
Essential Treasures from the Golden Cabinet
What is the Wen Bing Xue?
Warm Disease School
What is the primary disease factor in Wen Bing Xue?
What are the four levels of disease?
What are the five tastes + additional tastes?
What are the Four Qi?
also called Temperature Characteristics (really 5):
Hot, Cold, Warm, Cool, Neutral
Acrid: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?
·disperses (out and upward)
·enters the LU
·disperse and move (release the exterior)
Sweet: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?
·brings in and gathers
·enters the SP
·tonify, harmonize, nourish, strengthen, moderate (sometimes thought to moisten)
Bitter: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?
·downward-draining, purging, descending
·dries damp, stabilizes, binds, contains, holds
Salty: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?
·purges downwards (heaviest substance, besides minerals)
·softens hardness (good for constipation)
Sour: How does it move? What channel does it enter? What is its function?
·stabilize and bind
·enters the LV
·astringe / hold / contract - can prevent or reverse the abnormal leakage of fluids and energy
Bland: What is it's function and movement?
·leach out dampness & promote urination
·mild downward direction (less severe than bitter or salty)
Astringent: What tastes can it be? What is its function?
·includes sour and sweet
·retains and binds
·has ability to prevent leakage of fluids
·more sensation than flavor
What two tastes combined can produce Yin?
Sour and Sweet
Aromatic: What is its function and how does it move?
·moves in all directions
·penetrates through turbidity & eliminates damp
·awakens & revives
What two tastes combined can produce Yang?
Acrid and Sweet
What are the six channels?
Tai Yang - Shao Yang - Yang Ming
Tai Yin - Shao Yin - Jue Yin
How do Sinking and Lowering herbs treat?
·stop vomiting, cough, asthma
How do Floating and Ascending herbs treat?
·expel superficial evils
·expel Wind and Cold
·open the orifices
What are the Shao Yang channels and what kind of diseases happen here?
SJ - Hand
GB - foot
1/2 exterior & 1/2 interior
What are the Tai Yang Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?
SI - Hand
UB - Foot
exterior cold diseases
What are the 8 paramaters?
What are the Tai Yin channels and what kind of diseases happen here?
LU - Hand
SP - Foot
treat LU & SP pathologies
What are the Yang Ming Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?
LI - Hand
ST - Foot
interior excess diseases
What are the Jue Yin Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?
PC - Hand
LV - Foot
What are the Shao Yin Channels and what kind of diseases happen here?
HT - Hand
KI - Foot
treat HT & KI pathologies
What therapeutic method would you use for Yang Ming organ constipation?
What are the 8 therapeutic methods?
What therapeutic method would you use for Yang Ming channel excess (4 bigs)?
What therapeutic method would you use to treat Wind Cold Excess?
What herbs are typically dosed higher?
·hard, heavy, moderate and bland substances
·minerals and shells
What is the classical dosage measurement and modern equivalent?
What are other factors that effect dosage?
·severity of the problem (higher dosage if more severe)
·constitution of patient
·patient's ST Qi
What herbs are typically dosed in lower amounts?
·light, toxic, strongly flavored substances
·flowers, leaves, aromatic herbs
What is the common dosage range?
What is Mutual Enhancement?
the combination of 2 or more substances with different actions in which one of the substances enhances the effect of the other in a specific clinical situation
What is Mutual Accentuation?
the combination of 2 substances with similar functions to accentuate their therapeutic actions
What is Mutual Suppression?
converse of mutual counteraction in that here one substance also reduces the undesirable side effects of another
What is Mutual Counteraction?
a combination in which the toxicity or side effects of one substance are reduced or eliminated by another substance
What is Mutual Incompatibility?
occurs when the combination of 2 substances gives rise to side effects or toxicity which would not be caused by either substance when used alone
What is Mutual Antagonism?
the ability of 2 substances to minimize or neutralize each other's positive effects
In formulas, what is the Deputy's function?
to enhance or assist the therapeutic actions of the chiefs
In a formula, what is the Chief?
the substance that provides the main therapeutic thrust of the prescription
What is Pao Zhi?
any type of herb processing
In a formula, what does the Envoy do?
guides the other medicines to a specific channel or organ OR exerts a harmonizing influence
What are the most basic way to prepare and herb and why do we do this?
·pulverize or slice to increase surface area
·release more constituents into the decoction
In formulas, what do the Assistants do?
·treat accompanying symptoms
·moderate the harshness or toxicity of the primary substances
·assist the chief and deputies in accomplishing their main objective
·provide assistance from another therapeutic direction
·one or more of the above
Why Do we Dry Fry with salt?
directs herbs actions downward to the Kidneys
Why is Dry Frying used?
·dry herbs for storage
·also increases SP awakening, ST strengthening action
What action is increased when frying with Honey?
tonifying and moistening actions
Why do we Dry Fry until herb is Charred?
increases herbs hemostatic ability (to stop bleeding)
What actions are increased when frying with Vinegar?
astringent, analgesic, blood invigorating and detoxifying actions
What are the four liquids herbs are fried with?
What actions are enhanced when frying with Ginger Juice?
·reduces tendency of bitter and cold herbs to upset the ST
·enhances ability to warm ST and stop vomiting
What actions are increased when frying with Wine?
·ability to clear blockages from the channels
Which method of delivery is strongest, middle, weakest?
Decoction - Granules - Pills
What is Calcining? and What is Calcined?
- placing a substance directly or indirectly in the flames until it is thoroughly heated and turns red
- makes the substance brittle and easy to pulverize
- used for: minerals, shells
What type of herbs are added near the end?
·Da Haung - to have purgative effect
How long is a Decoction generally cooked for? In what situations doe we cook for longer/shorter periods of time?
· 20-30 minutes - normal
·10-15 minutes if formula that Release the Exterior, Clear Heat or contains herbs w/ volatile oils
·45-60 minutes if formula has rich, cloying herbs
·45+ minutes for toxic herbs, to reduce toxicity
What herbs are bagged in gauze?
·herbs with cilia
What types of herbs are decocted first?
·toxic herbs - to reduce toxicity
·minerals, shells - to soften and aid digestion
·lightweight substances in large dosage - to make room in pot
What type of substances are dissolved in a strained decoction?
highly viscous pr sticky substances, to keep them from sticking to the pot or other herbs
What types of substances are decocted separately?
rare and expensive substances
What are the two types of drug interactions?
What kind of substances are taken with a strained decoction
- expensive, aromatic substances are ground into a powder and taken first, followed by strained decoction
- also, rare animal horns
What is a pharmacodynamic reaction?
when two drugs / herbs alter the way in which a drug or herb effects a tissue or organ system (can be either synergistic or antagonistic)