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Flashcards in week 2 - annie Deck (53)
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1

4 Qi / 4 temperature characteristics
(5 designations)

- hot (re)
- cold (han)
- warm (wen)
- cool (liang)
- neutral (ping)

2

temperature continuum

hot --> warm --> slightly warm --> neutral --> slightly cold --> cool --> cold

3

examples of how temperature of herbs are used in treatment

- watermelon rind is used to cool heat
- garlic, ginger, and scallion are used to warm

4

5 tastes + their directions

- acrid (xin) - disperse + move; out + upward
- sweet (gan) - tonify, nourish, strengthen, harmonize, and sometimes moisten
- bitter (ku) - drain + dry; downward
- sour (suan) - astringent; stablize + bind; hold, contract, astringe; prevent or reverse abnormal leakage of fluids + energy
- salty (xian) - purge + soften; downward

5

additional tastes

- bland (dan) - [no taste] - leach out dampness + promote urination
- aromatic (xiang) - ability to penetrate thru turbidity + revive a part. function
- astringent (se) - ability to prevent leakage of fluids

6

ascription of actions of herbs
(tastes matched with organs)

- acridity enters LU
- sweetnss enters SP
- bitterness enters HT
- sourness enters LV
- saltiness enters KD

7

acrid / spicy / pungent

- disperse out + upward (e.g. thru sweating)
- moving + circulating
- releases the exterior
- enters the LU
- can be a great Qi regulator + help dampness or pain (stasis / stagnation)

8

sweet

- tonify, nourish, strengthen
- harmonize + moderate (not strong + intense)
- relieves tension (e.g. stomachache, spasms, pain)
- enters the SP
- can normalize function of ST + SP, but caution w/ SP Qi xu + dampness
- richness, stickiness, thickness -- blocks Qi -- creates stagnation leading to dampness

9

bitter

- downward draining / purging (promotes bowel movement; purges heat / fire; descents Qi for vomiting, nausea, belching)
- dry dampness (esp. damp-heat in abdomen or below)
- can have a sedating affect due to descending tendency
- enters the HT

10

salty

- heaviest substance besides minerals
- purges downwards for constipation
- softens hardness
- tends to enter KD
- includes all seaweeds + many animal products (bc sea is salty + blood is salty)

11

sour

- stabilize + bind
- astringe / hold / contract
- stops movement + can move backwards
- contains fluids + Qi
- enters the LV
- can refresh + improve the apetite, when used appropriately (e.g. kombucha, pickles)
- stomach Yin -- preserve Yin (Sour combined w/ Sweet can produce Yin + body fluids)

12

astringent

- includes sour + sweet
- retains + binds
- feels like a coat on tongue + sucking feeling (e.g. inner lining of pomegranate, tannin from some red wines, non-ripe persimmon)
- if you char an herb, it will be astringent but not necessarily taste sour
- caution: could hold in a pathology and trap it (esp. w/ an exterior invasion)

13

bland

- diuretic influence (e.g. edema)
- promote urination
- leech out dampness (thru urine) (esp. if dampness is in lower jia)
- has downard direction, but milder than bitter or salty

14

aromatic

- awakens + revives (e.g. good for a sluggish digestive system)
- moves in all directions
- stronger than acrid (which moves up + out)
- penetrates thru turbidity (if closed or blocked) (e.g. smelling salts)
- eliminates damp in joints (rheumatism)

15

2 tastes that produce Yang

acrid/pungent + sweet can produce Yang

16

2 tastes that produce Yin

sour + sweet can produce Yin

17

ba gang (8 parameters)

exterior -- interior
hot -- cold
excess -- deficiency
yang -- yin

18

6 channels

- Tai Yang (SI, UB) - exterior + cold diseases
- Shao Yang (SJ, GB) - half interior + exterior
- Yang Ming (LI, ST) - interior excess diseases

- Tai Yin (LU, SP) - Lung + Spleen pathologies
- Shao Yin (HT, KD) - Heart + Kidney pathologies (most severe)
- Jue Yin (PC, LV) - reverting

19

4 levels

exterior to interior:
1. wei
2. Qi
3. ying (nutritive)
4. xue (blood)

20

3 jiaos

- upper jiao (governed by LU)
- middle jiao (governed by SP)
- lower jiao (governed by KD)

21

directional properties of herbs

- floating + ascending
- sinking + lowering

22

floating + ascending herbs can be used to...

- expel superficial evils
- ascend Yang
- expel wind + cold
- induce vomiting
- open the orifices (coma = closed orifice)
- promote eruptions (measles)
- warm Yang

23

sinking + lowering herbs can be used to...

- clear heat
- purge
- promote urination (move down + out)
- calm the mind
- descend Yang (down, but not out)
- stop vomiting
- stop cough + asthma
- astringe
- promote digestion

24

FUNCTION vs INDICATION of an herb

- function will include TCM terms (e.g. downbear counterflow or rebellious Qi)
- indication will be what the patient tells you (signs + symptoms) (e.g. vomiting, couging, hiccup)

25

ba fa (8 therapeutic methods)

1. promote sweating
2. clear (e.g. clear heat)
3. purge
4. harmonize
5. warm
6. tonify
7. reduce / sedate
8. induce vomiting

26

pathogens enter body via...

- skin
- 9 orifices

27

pathogens are expelled/eliminated via...

- skin (sweating)
- mouth (vomiting)
- bowels (purging)
- urine

28

correct way to come up with herbal formula

Sx --> Dx --> T.P. --> Rx

Symptoms --> Diagnosis --> Treatment Principle --> Prescription / Herbal formula

29

cautions with temperature

- don't use cooling herbs when there is pathogenic cold
- don't clear heat when there is a cold condition

30

cautions with 6 pathogenic factors

- don't use herbs that drain damp, if there is dryness
- don't use astringent + binding when a patient needs purging
- caution when using tonifying herbs or astringent herbs when thereis an exterior pathogen present